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Structure and Function of Mountain Ecosystems in Japan

Structure and Function of Mountain Ecosystems in Japan Author Gaku Kudo
ISBN-10 9784431559542
Release 2016-03-22
Pages 173
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The purpose of this book is to summarize new insights on the structure and function of mountain ecosystems and to present evidence and perspectives on the impact of climate change on biodiversity. This volume describes overall features of high-mountain ecosystems in Japan, which are characterized by clear seasonality and snow-thawing dynamics. Individual chapters cover a variety of unique topics, namely, vegetation dynamics along elevations, the physiological function of alpine plants, the structure of flowering phenology, plant–pollinator interactions, the geographical pattern of coniferous forests, terrestrial–aquatic linkage in carbon dynamics, and the community structure of bacteria in mountain lake systems. High-mountain ecosystems are characterized by unique flora and fauna, including many endemic and rare species. On the other hand, the systems are extremely vulnerable to environmental change. The biodiversity is maintained by the existence of spatiotemporally heterogeneous habitats along environmental gradients, such as elevation and snowmelt time. Understanding the structure and function of mountain ecosystems is crucial for the conservation of mountain biodiversity and the prediction of the climate change impacts.The diverse studies and integrated synthesis presented in this book provide readers with a holistic view of mountain ecosystems. It is a recommended read for anyone interested in mountain ecosystems and alpine plants, including undergraduate and graduate students studying ecology, field workers involved in conservational activity in mountains, policymakers planning ecosystem management of protected areas, and researchers of general ecology. In particular, this book will be of interest to ecologists of countries who are not familiar with Japanese mountain ecosystems, which are characterized by humid summers, cold winters, and the snowiest climate in the world.



Ecosystem Services Biodiversity and Environmental Change in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of South Ecuador

Ecosystem Services  Biodiversity and Environmental Change in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of South Ecuador Author Jörg Bendix
ISBN-10 9783642381379
Release 2013-07-09
Pages 440
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An interdisciplinary research unit consisting of 30 teams in the natural, economic and social sciences analyzed biodiversity and ecosystem services of a mountain rainforest ecosystem in the hotspot of the tropical Andes, with special reference to past, current and future environmental changes. The group assessed ecosystem services using data from ecological field and scenario-driven model experiments, and with the help of comparative field surveys of the natural forest and its anthropogenic replacement system for agriculture. The book offers insights into the impacts of environmental change on various service categories mentioned in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005): cultural, regulating, supporting and provisioning ecosystem services. Examples focus on biodiversity of plants and animals including trophic networks, and abiotic/biotic parameters such as soils, regional climate, water, nutrient and sediment cycles. The types of threats considered include land use and climate changes, as well as atmospheric fertilization. In terms of regulating and provisioning services, the emphasis is primarily on water regulation and supply as well as climate regulation and carbon sequestration. With regard to provisioning services, the synthesis of the book provides science-based recommendations for a sustainable land use portfolio including several options such as forestry, pasture management and the practices of indigenous peoples. In closing, the authors show how they integrated the local society by pursuing capacity building in compliance with the CBD-ABS (Convention on Biological Diversity - Access and Benefit Sharing), in the form of education and knowledge transfer for application.



The Biodiversity Observation Network in the Asia Pacific Region

The Biodiversity Observation Network in the Asia Pacific Region Author Shin-ichi Nakano
ISBN-10 9784431540328
Release 2012-07-26
Pages 480
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Biological diversity is important for ecosystem function and services, which in turn is essential for human well-being. Under the Convention on Biological Diversity, international efforts have been made to achieve a significant reduction in the current rate of biodiversity loss. The loss continues, however. The Asia-Pacific region includes both developing countries with high biodiversity and developed countries with sophisticated data collection and analyses, but only limited information about the status quo of biodiversity in this region has been available. Many Asia-Pacific countries have rapidly grown their economies and social infrastructures, causing a loss of biodiversity and requiring an urgent mandate to achieve a balance between development and conservation in the region. In December 2009, scientists successfully organized the Asia-Pacific Biodiversity Observation Network in the region, to establish a network for research and monitoring of ecosystems and biodiversity and to build a cooperative framework. The present volume is the first collection of information on biodiversity in the Asia-Pacific and represents a quantum step forward in science that optimizes the synergy between development and biodiversity conservation.



The Tropical Mountain Forest

The Tropical Mountain Forest Author Stephan Robbert Gradstein
ISBN-10 1931968799
Release 2010
Pages 217
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Tropical mountain forests are very rich in species and are generally considered as hotspots of biodiversity. They are also of great ecological importance as sources of water and other ecosystem services for millions of people living in the tropics. However, these valuable forest ecosystems are now increasingly being fragmented, reduced, and disturbed by human interventions. This book originated from a lecture series on the tropical mountain forest organized by the Göttingen Centre of Biodiversity and Ecology and held at the University of Göttingen, Germany, during the summer term of 2007. The volume presents a synthesis of current ecological research in Germany on the tropical mountain forest, from an interdisciplinary perspective.



Global Biodiversity in a Changing Environment

Global Biodiversity in a Changing Environment Author F.Stuart Chapin
ISBN-10 9781461301578
Release 2013-12-01
Pages 378
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The scientific community has voiced two general concerns about the future of the earth. Firstly, climatologists and oceanographers have focused on the changes in our physical environment, ie climate, oceans, and air. And secondly, environmental biologists have addressed issues of conservation and the extinction of species. There is increasing evidence that these two broad concerns are intertwined and mutually dependent. Past changes in biodiversity have both responded to and caused changes in the earths environment. In its discussions of ten key terrestrial biomes and freshwater ecosystems, this volume uses our broad understanding of global environmental change to present the first comprehensive scenarios of biodiversity for the twenty-first century. Combining physical earth science with conservation biology, the book provides a starting-point for regional assessments on all scales. The book will be of interest to those concerned with guiding research on the changing environment of the earth and with planning future policy, especially in accordance with the Global Biodiversity Convention.



Key Issues for Mountain Areas

Key Issues for Mountain Areas Author Martin F. Price
ISBN-10 9789280811025
Release 2004
Pages 273
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Mountain areas cover a quarter of the Earth's land surface, with 26 percent of the global population living in them or very close by.Mountain people and mountain environments are particularly threatened by global environmental change and economic and political forces. A disproportionate number of conflicts occur in mountain regions, and their inhabitants include many of the poorest and most vulnerable in the world.How can we preserve fragile mountain ecosystems that provide critical goods and services, while improving the conditions of those who live there? This book explores these issues, with particular emphasis on appropriate institutions and policies for sustainable mountain development. The book includes information from the Bishkek Global Mountain Summit, the concluding global event of the International Year of Mountains 2002.



Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Services

Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Services Author Shin-ichi Nakano
ISBN-10 9789811007804
Release 2016-06-02
Pages 125
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This volume examines the topic of local biodiversity conservation in the Asia-Pacific region, one of the most rapidly changing areas in the world. With a focus on aquatic systems, this book offers insight on the state of local biodiversity, challenges in management and conservation of biodiversity, and newly developed methods for monitoring biodiversity. In addition, because the service provided by an ecosystem for humans is interlinked with conservation, the final part is dedicated to evaluating the socioeconomic aspect of ecosystem services, with special reference to local biodiversity. In effect, all contributions provide information that is invaluable for effective conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. This work will interest all stakeholders in biodiversity conservation, including policy makers, NPOs, NGOs, environment-related industries, and biodiversity researchers, not only in the Asia-Pacific region, but also across the entire globe.



CO2 Temperature and Trees

CO2  Temperature  and Trees Author Dieter Overdieck
ISBN-10 9789811018602
Release 2016-10-22
Pages 240
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This comprehensive book discusses the ecophysiological features of trees affected by the two most prominent factors of climate change: atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. It starts with the introduction of experimental methods at the leaf, branch, the whole-tree, and tree group scales, and in the following chapters elaborates on specific topics including photosynthesis of leaves, respiration of plant organs, water use efficiency, the production of and/or distribution patterns of carbohydrates, secondary metabolites, and nutrients, anatomy of cells and tissues, height and stem-diameter growth, biomass accumulation, leaf phenology and longevity, and model ecosystems (soil-litter-plant enclosures). The current knowledge is neatly summarized, and the author presents valuable data derived from his 30 years of experimental research, some of which is published here for the first time. Using numerous examples the book answers the fundamental questions such as: What are the interactions of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature on tree growth and matter partitioning? How do different tree groups react? Are there any effects on organisms living together with trees? What kinds of models can be used to interpret the results from experiments on trees? This volume is highly recommended for researchers, postdocs, and graduate students in the relevant fields. It is also a valuable resource for undergraduate students, decision-makers in the fields of forest management and environmental protection, and any other scientists who are interested in the effect of global change on ecosystems.



Snow Leopards

Snow Leopards Author
ISBN-10 9780128024966
Release 2016-06-06
Pages 644
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Snow Leopards: Biodiversity of the World: Conservation from Genes to Landscapes is the only comprehensive work on the biology, behavior, and conservation status of the snow leopard, a species that has long been one of the least studied, and hence poorly understood, of the large cats. Breakthroughs in technologies and methodologies to study this elusive cat have come rapidly, including non-invasive genetics, camera traps, and GPS-satellite collaring. The book begins with chapters on the genetic standing and taxonomy of the snow leopard, followed by chapters on their behavior and ecology. Additional contributions follow on the current and emerging threats to the species, which include longstanding concerns, such as poaching and conflicts with livestock, and new and emerging threats such as mining and climate change. A section on conservation solutions, backed by valuable case studies, starts with an overview of the important role mountain communities play in assuring the snow leopard’s long-term persistence. In addition, chapters on the role of captive snow leopards for the conservation of the species, state-of-the-art techniques and technologies for studying and monitoring snow leopards, status reports from around the region, and future perspectives, such as transboundary conservation initiatives, international conventions (CITES, CMS, etc.), the role of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group and the Snow Leopard Network, and undertakings such as the Global Snow Leopard Forum facilitated by the World Bank are also included. Serves as the first and only comprehensive book on the biology, behavior, and conservation status of the snow leopard Brings together the most current scientific knowledge, documents the most pressing conservation issues, and shares success stories in alleviating the broad threats that now jeopardize the long-term survival of this species Brings current knowledge of the species, not only to researchers and conservationists, but also to decision makers, academics, and students Edited by recognized snow leopard experts, with more than 50 years of collective experience in research and conservation of the species



Conservation Biology for All

Conservation Biology for All Author Navjot S. Sodhi
ISBN-10 9780199554232
Release 2010
Pages 344
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Conservation Biology for All provides cutting-edge but basic conservation science to a global readership. A series of authoritative chapters have been written by the top names in conservation biology with the principal aim of disseminating cutting-edge conservation knowledge as widely as possible. Important topics such as balancing conversion and human needs, climate change, conservation planning, designing and analyzing conservation research, ecosystem services, endangered species management, extinctions, fire, habitat loss, and invasive species are covered. Numerous textboxes describing additional relevant material or case studies are also included. The global biodiversity crisis is now unstoppable; what can be saved in the developing world will require an educated constituency in both the developing and developed world. Habitat loss is particularly acute in developing countries, which is of special concern because it tends to be these locations where the greatest species diversity and richest centres of endemism are to be found. Sadly, developing world conservation scientists have found it difficult to access an authoritative textbook, which is particularly ironic since it is these countries where the potential benefits of knowledge application are greatest. There is now an urgent need to educate the next generation of scientists in developing countries, so that they are in a better position to protect their natural resources.



Ecological Impacts of Tsunamis on Coastal Ecosystems

Ecological Impacts of Tsunamis on Coastal Ecosystems Author Jotaro Urabe
ISBN-10 9784431564485
Release 2016-10-28
Pages 410
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This book focuses on the ecological impacts of the Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting tsunamis, a rare and extremely large disturbance event, on various coastal ecosystems in Japan’s Tohoku area, including sub-tidal and tidal animal communities, sand dune plant communities and coastal forests. The studies presented here describe not only how species and populations in these ecosystems were disturbed by the earthquake and tsunamis, but also how the communities have responded to the event and what types of anthropogenic activities will hamper their recovery processes. In the ecological sciences, it is often argued that large disturbances are critical to shaping community structures and biodiversity in local and regional habitats. However, our understanding of these roles remains limited, simply because there have been few opportunities to examine and address the ecological impacts of large disturbance events. The scale of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake makes it one of the largest hazards in the past 1000 years. Thus, this book provides a unique opportunity to advance our understanding of the ecological impacts of large and rare disturbances and the implications of these events in the conservation and management of coastal ecosystems. Following an outline of the Great East Japan Earthquake, the book’s content is divided into two major parts. Part I reports on studies examining the ecological impacts of the tsunamis on sub-tidal and tidal animal communities, while Part II focuses on terrestrial plant communities in Japan’s coastal Tohoku area. This book will benefit all scientists interested in the ecological impacts of large disturbances on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in general, and especially those who are interested in the ecological management of coastal ecosystems and Ecosystem based Disaster Risk Reduction (EcoDRR).



Climate Change and Cities

Climate Change and Cities Author Cynthia Rosenzweig
ISBN-10 9781139497404
Release 2011-04-28
Pages
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Urban areas are home to over half the world's people and are at the forefront of the climate change issue. The need for a global research effort to establish the current understanding of climate change adaptation and mitigation at the city level is urgent. To meet this goal a coalition of international researchers - the Urban Climate Change Research Network (UCCRN) - was formed at the time of the C40 Large Cities Climate Summit in New York in 2007. This book is the First UCCRN Assessment Report on Climate Change and Cities. The authors are all international experts from a diverse range of cities with varying socio-economic conditions, from both the developing and developed world. It is invaluable for mayors, city officials and policymakers; urban sustainability officers and urban planners; and researchers, professors and advanced students.



Dispersing Primate Females

Dispersing Primate Females Author Takeshi Furuichi
ISBN-10 9784431554806
Release 2015-06-05
Pages 299
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Why do females in male-philopatric species seem to show larger variation in their life history strategies than males in female-philopatric species? Why did females in human societies come to show enormous variation in the patterns of marriage, residence and mating activities? To tackle these important questions, this book presents the latest knowledge about the dispersing females in male-philopatric non-human primates and in human societies. The non-human primates that are covered include muriquis, spider monkeys, woolly monkeys, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos and some species of colobine monkeys. In these non-human primate species females typically leave their natal group before sexual maturation and start reproduction in other groups into which they immigrate. However, there is a large variation as some females may breed in their natal group with some risks of inbreeding with their male relatives and some females may associate with males of multiple groups at the same time after leaving their natal group. Such variation seems to provide better strategies for reproduction depending on local circumstances. Although knowledge about female dispersal patterns and life history is indispensable for understanding the dynamic structure of primate societies, it is still not known how females behave after leaving their natal groups, how many groups they visit before finally settling down and which kinds of groups they choose to immigrate into, due to the large variation and flexibility and the difficulty of tracking females after natal dispersal. To encourage further progress in this important field, this volume provides new insights on evolution of female dispersal by describing factors influencing variations in the dispersal pattern across primates and a hypothesis for the formation of human families from the perspectives of female life history. This book is recommended reading for researchers and students in primatology, anthropology, animal behavior and evolution and for anyone interested in primate societies and human evolution.



A Chance for Lasting Survival

A Chance for Lasting Survival Author Pan Wenshi
ISBN-10 9781935623304
Release 2014-03-04
Pages 460
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From 1984 through 1995 a small band of ecologists led by Pan Wenshi from Peking University conducted a study of wild giant pandas in the Qinling Mountains of Shaanxi Province. This project was the first Chinese-led conservation project in China and was conducted during a significant transition period in Chinese history, as the country opened its society and science to the world. The project focused on behavioral observation of wild giant pandas, but evolved to include physiology, nutrition, ecology, land-use policy, and population biology as the staff became more aware that the issues with captive pandas (assisted reproduction, unusual diet, and genetic inbreeding) were not the most critical to survival of wild populations. It is evident in this work that, as the scientists gained knowledge, they came to see giant panda conservation as wrapped in landscape ecology and human/wildlife interactions. The group was seminal in the Chinese government's enactment of a logging ban to their study area by advocating for pandas at the national level. The project was summarized in a 2001 volume, but its publication in Mandarin limited its influence on the greater conservation community. This English version of the original work translates, condenses, and refines the original volume, with added contextual chapters on the importance of this volume and how our understanding of giant panda conservation is shaped by this pioneering field work.



Climate change impacts and adaptation in Nepal

Climate change impacts and adaptation in Nepal Author Bartlett, R.
ISBN-10 9789290907329
Release 2010-12-29
Pages 35
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The impact of climate change (CC) on water resources is likely to affect agricultural systems and food security. This is especially true for Nepal, a least developed country, where a high percentage of the population is dependent on agriculture for its livelihoods. It is thus crucial for Nepal’s leaders and resource managers to draft and begin implementing national adaptation plans. This working paper aims to create a more comprehensive understanding of how the impacts of CC will be realized at different scales in Nepal, from household livelihoods to national food security, and the many institutions governing the ultimate adaptation process.



Brain Evolution by Design

Brain Evolution by Design Author Shuichi Shigeno
ISBN-10 9784431564690
Release 2017-01-04
Pages 438
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This book presents a new, detailed examination that explains how elegant brains have been shaped in evolution. It consists of 19 chapters written by academic professionals in neuroscience, opening with the origin of single-celled creatures and then introducing primordial types in invertebrates with the great abundance of the brains of vertebrates. Important topics are provided in a timely manner, because novel techniques emerged rapidly—as seen, for examples, in the next-generation sequencers and omics approaches. With the explosion of big data, neural-related genes and molecules is now on the radar. In fact, Europe’s big science and technology projects, a €1 billion plan called the Human Brain Project and the Blue Brain Project to understand mammalian brain networks, have been launched in recent years. Furthermore, with the rise of recently advanced artificial intelligence, there is great enthusiasm for understanding the evolution of neural networks. The views from brain evolution in nature provide an essential opportunity to generate ideas for novel neuron- and brain-inspired computation. The ambition behind this book is that it will stimulate young scientists who seek a deeper understanding in order to find the basic principles shaping brains that provided higher cognitive functions in the course of evolution.



Monitoring and Modeling of Global Changes A Geomatics Perspective

Monitoring and Modeling of Global Changes  A Geomatics Perspective Author Jonathan Li
ISBN-10 9789401798136
Release 2015-07-28
Pages 320
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The chapters in this book present state-of-the-art geomatics technologies applied in global environmental studies. This text provides the latest research findings and delivers complete references to related publications. This book will motivate the undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and practitioners to better understand the environmental changes with informed solutions. Global Change studies are increasingly considered a vital source of information to understand the Earth Environment, especially in the framework of human-induced, climate change and land use transformation. Satellite Earth Observing systems and geomatics technologies provide a unique tool to monitor and model the changes, respectively. While the range of applications and innovative techniques are always increasing, this book provides a summary of key study cases where satellite data offers critical information to understand the usefulness of the geomatics technologies and global environmental issues. Geomatics technologies provide powerful tools to model and analyze the effects of those global environmental changes towards minimizing their adverse impacts on human health and the environment.