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Sustainable Intensification to Advance Food Security and Enhance Climate Resilience in Africa

Sustainable Intensification to Advance Food Security and Enhance Climate Resilience in Africa Author Rattan Lal
ISBN-10 9783319093604
Release 2014-10-10
Pages 665
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This 32-chapter volume represents the core of several oral and poster presentations made at the conference. In addition to Introduction and Conclusion sections, the book is thematically divided into 7 sections, namely, 1) Land Use and Farming Systems, 2) Effects of Climate Change on Crop Yield, 3) Soil Nutrient and Water Management for Carbon Sequestration, 4) Rehabilitation of Degraded Lands through Forestry and Agroforestry, 5) Management of Animal Production for Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 6) Smallholder Adaptation to Climate Change, and 7) Economic, Social and Policy Issues. It addresses these themes in the context of sustainable intensification (SI). It implies increasing agronomic production from the existing land while improving/restoring its quality and decreasing the C or environmental footprint. Simply put, SI means producing more from less.

Climate Change and Multi Dimensional Sustainability in African Agriculture

Climate Change and Multi Dimensional Sustainability in African Agriculture Author Rattan Lal
ISBN-10 9783319412382
Release 2016-11-23
Pages 717
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This 35-chapter book is based on several oral and poster presentations including both invited and contributory chapters. The book is thematically based on four pillars of sustainability, with focus on sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): Environment, Economic, Social and Institutional. The environmental sustainability, which determines economic and social/institutional sustainability, refers to the rate of use of natural resources (soil, water, landscape, vegetation) which can be continued indefinitely without degrading their quality, productivity and ecosystem services for different ecoregions of SSA. This book will help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals of the U.N. in SSA. Therefore, the book is of interest to agriculturalists, economists, social scientists, policy makers, extension agents, and development/bilateral organizations. Basic principles explained in the book can be pertinent to all development organizations.

Climate Smart Agriculture

Climate Smart Agriculture Author Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
ISBN-10 9789251099667
Release 2018-06-12
Pages 629
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The book expands and formalizes the conceptual foundations of Climate-Smart Agriculture, drawing upon theory and concepts from agricultural development, institutional and resource economics. The book uses economic lens to identify the main features of CSA, its likely impact, and the challenges associated with its implementation. It is a product of the EPIC team in the ESA division and contributes to SO2 OO2. Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) is a concept that calls for integration of the need for adaptation and the possibility of mitigation in agricultural growth strategies to support food security. Several countries around the world have expressed intent to adopt CSA approach to managing their agricultural sectors. However there is considerable confusion about what the CSA concept and approach actually involve, and wide variation in how the term is used. It is critical to build a more formal basis for the CSA concept and methodology and at the same time providing illustrations of how the concept can be applied across a range of conditions.

Climate Smart Agriculture

Climate Smart Agriculture Author Leslie Lipper
ISBN-10 9783319611945
Release 2017-10-20
Pages 630
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This book is open access under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license. The book uses an economic lens to identify the main features of climate-smart agriculture (CSA), its likely impact, and the challenges associated with its implementation. Drawing upon theory and concepts from agricultural development, institutional, and resource economics, this book expands and formalizes the conceptual foundations of CSA. Focusing on the adaptation/resilience dimension of CSA, the text embraces a mixture of conceptual analyses, including theory, empirical and policy analysis, and case studies, to look at adaptation and resilience through three possible avenues: ex-ante reduction of vulnerability, increasing adaptive capacity, and ex-post risk coping. The book is divided into three sections. The first section provides conceptual framing, giving an overview of the CSA concept and grounding it in core economic principles. The second section is devoted to a set of case studies illustrating the economic basis of CSA in terms of reducing vulnerability, increasing adaptive capacity and ex-post risk coping. The final section addresses policy issues related to climate change. Providing information on this new and important field in an approachable way, this book helps make sense of CSA and fills intellectual and policy gaps by defining the concept and placing it within an economic decision-making framework. This book will be of interest to agricultural, environmental, and natural resource economists, development economists, and scholars of development studies, climate change, and agriculture. It will also appeal to policy-makers, development practitioners, and members of governmental and non-governmental organizations interested in agriculture, food security and climate change.

Agricultural Development and Sustainable Intensification

Agricultural Development and Sustainable Intensification Author Udaya Sekhar Nagothu
ISBN-10 1138300594
Release 2018
Pages 326
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Agricultural development and sustainable intensification: technology and policy innovations / Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, Esther Bloem and Andrew Borrell -- Save and grow: translating policy advice into field action for sustainable intensification of rice production / Jan Willem Ketelaar, Alma Linda M. Abubakar, Pham Van Du, Cahyana Widyastama, Avakat Phasouysaingam, Jesse Binamira & Ngo Tien Dung -- Sustainable intensification and maize value chain improvements in Sub-Saharan Africa / Isaiah Nyagumbo, Mehreteab Tesfai, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, James K. Karanja -- The role of wheat in global food security / Maricelis Acevedo, Jason D. Zurn, Gemma Molero, Pawan Singh, Xinyao He, Meriem Aoun, Philomin Juliana, Harold Bockleman, Mike Bonman, Mahmoud El-Sohl, Ahmed Amri, Ronnie Coffman, and Linda McCandless -- Innovative practices in potato production for food and nutrition security / Ngo Tien Dung, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, Alma Linda M. Abubakar, Jan Willem Ketelaar, Mehreteab Tesfai -- Pulses-millets crop diversification by smallholders and their potential for sustainable food and nutrition security / Mehreteab Tesfai, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, Asfaw Adugna -- Global challenges in today's horticulture and prospects offered by protected vegetable cultivation / Hugo Despretz, Warwick Easdown and Mansab Ali -- Sustainable crop-livestock intensification in the Sub-Saharan Africa: improving productivity through innovative adaptation / Donald M.G. Njarui, Mupenzi Mutimura, Elias M. Gichangi and Sita R. Ghimire -- Community-driven approaches to sustainable intensification in river deltas: lessons from the Ganges and Mekong rivers / Douglas J. Merrey, Manoranjan K. Mondal, Chu Thai Hoanh, Elizabeth Humphreys, Nga Dao -- Sustainable agriculture intensification: innovations to strengthen extension services and market linkages / Udaya Sekhar Nagothu and Allison Morrill Chatrchyan -- Multi-level policy measures to support sustainable agriculture intensification for smallholders / Allison Chatrchyan, Christina Yin, Emmanuel Torquebiau, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu -- Summary, technology and policy options / udaya sekhar nagothu

Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa

Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa Author Cyndi Spindell Berck
ISBN-10 9781351369503
Release 2018-03-05
Pages 438
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A changing climate is likely to have a drastic impact on crop yields in Africa. The purpose of this book is to document the effects of climate change on agriculture in Africa and to discuss strategies for adaptation to hotter weather and less predictable rainfall. These strategies include promoting opportunities for farmers to adopt technologies that produce optimal results in terms of crop yield and income under local agro-ecological and socioeconomic conditions. The focus is on sub-Saharan Africa, an area that is already affected by changing patterns of heat and rainfall. Because of the high prevalence of subsistence farming, food insecurity, and extreme poverty in this region, there is a great need for practical adaptation strategies. The book includes empirical research in Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and other Sub-Saharan countries, and the conclusion summarizes policy-relevant findings from the chapters. It is aimed at advanced students, researchers, extension and development practitioners, and officials of government agencies, NGOs, and funding agencies. It also will provide supplementary reading for courses in environment and development and in agricultural economics.

Agricultural Development and Sustainable Intensification

Agricultural Development and Sustainable Intensification Author Udaya Sekhar Nagothu
ISBN-10 9781351403337
Release 2018-05-11
Pages 306
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Sustainable Intensification (SI) has recently emerged as a key concept for agricultural development, recognising that yields must increase to feed a growing world population, but it must be achieved without damage to the environment, on finite land resources and while preserving social and natural capital. It also recognises that all initiatives must cope with the challenges of climate change to agricultural production, food security and livelihoods. This multidisciplinary book presents state-of-the-art reviews of current SI approaches to promote major food crops, challenges and advances made in technology, and the institutional and policy measures necessary to overcome the constraints faced by smallholder farmers. Adressing the UN's Sustainable Development Goal 2, the various chapters based on evidence and experiences of reputed researchers show how these innovations, if properly nurtured and implemented, can make a difference to food and nutrition security outcomes. Case studies from around the world are included, with a particular emphasis on Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The focus is not only on scientific aspects such as climate-smart agriculture, agroecology and improving input use efficiency and management, but also on institutional and policy challenges that must be met to increase the net societal benefits of sustainable agricultural intensification. The book is aimed at advanced students and researchers in sustainable agriculture and policy, development practitioners, policy makers and non-governmental and farmer organisations.

Conservation Agriculture for Africa

Conservation Agriculture for Africa Author Amir H Kassam
ISBN-10 9781780645681
Release 2016-12-14
Pages 317
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Tillage agriculture has led to widespread soil and ecosystem degradation globally. This is especially so in Africa where traditional and modern tillage-based agricultural practices have become unsustainable due to severe disturbance and exploitation of natural resources, with negative impacts on the environment and rural livelihoods. In addition, agriculture in Africa today faces major challenges including increased costs of production and energy, the effects of climate change, and the lack of an effective paradigm for sustainable intensification, especially for small- and medium-size holdings. Africa is facing a serious challenge to food security and as a continent has not advanced towards eradicating hunger. In addition, the population is still growing much faster than on most other continents. This pressure has led to the emergence of no-till conservation agriculture as a serious alternative sustainable agriculture paradigm. In Africa, in recent years, conservation agriculture techniques and methods have spread to many countries, as greater development, education and research effort are directed towards its extension and uptake. This book is aimed at agricultural researchers and scientists, educationalists, and agricultural service providers, institutional leaders and policy makers working in the fields of sustainable agriculture and international development, and also at agroecologists, conservation scientists, and those working on ecosystem services.

One Billion Hungry

One Billion Hungry Author Gordon Conway
ISBN-10 9780801466106
Release 2012-10-16
Pages 464
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Hunger is a daily reality for a billion people. More than six decades after the technological discoveries that led to the Green Revolution aimed at ending world hunger, regular food shortages, malnutrition, and poverty still plague vast swaths of the world. And with increasing food prices, climate change, resource inequality, and an ever-increasing global population, the future holds further challenges. In One Billion Hungry, Sir Gordon Conway, one of the world's foremost experts on global food needs, explains the many interrelated issues critical to our global food supply from the science of agricultural advances to the politics of food security. He expands the discussion begun in his influential The Doubly Green Revolution: Food for All in the Twenty-First Century, emphasizing the essential combination of increased food production, environmental stability, and poverty reduction necessary to end endemic hunger on our planet. Beginning with a definition of hunger and how it is calculated, and moving through issues topically both detailed and comprehensive, each chapter focuses on specific challenges and solutions, ranging in scope from the farmer's daily life to the global movement of food, money, and ideas. Drawing on the latest scientific research and the results of projects around the world, Conway addresses the concepts and realities of our global food needs: the legacy of the Green Revolution; the impact of market forces on food availability; the promise and perils of genetically modified foods; agricultural innovation in regard to crops, livestock, pest control, soil, and water; and the need to both adapt to and slow the rate of climate change. One Billion Hungry will be welcomed by all readers seeking a multifacted understanding of our global food supply, food security, international agricultural development, and sustainability.

Save and Grow

Save and Grow Author Mangala Rai
ISBN-10 9251068712
Release 2011
Pages 102
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In many countries, decades of intensive cropping have degraded fertile land and depleted groundwater, provoked pest upsurges, eroded biodiversity, and polluted air, soil and water. The present paradigm of intensive crop production cannot meet the challenges of the new millennium. In order to grow, agriculture must learn to save. This book presents a new paradigm: sustainable crop production intensification (SCPI), which produces more from the same area of land while conserving resources, reducing negative impacts on the environment and enhancing natural capital and the flow of ecosystem services.

Integrated Landscape Approaches for Africa s Drylands

Integrated Landscape Approaches for Africa   s Drylands Author Erin Gray
ISBN-10 9781464808272
Release 2016-08-23
Pages 184
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Integrated Landscape Approaches for Africa’s Drylands presents emerging fi ndings on the importance of moving beyond single-sector interventions to embrace integrated landscape management that takes into account the health of the ecosystems that support human livelihoods and contribute to the resilience of rural communities in Sub-Saharan African drylands. Integrated landscape management is particularly important for these drylands because people depend on production systems that are frequently disrupted by exogenous shocks such as drought. The ecological and economic evidence presented in this book shows that integrated landscape management can enhance efforts to invest in tree-based systems and improved livestock management and support productivity increases for rain-fed cropping. Integrated landscape management efforts have helped to coordinate the actions of multiple land users and other stakeholders, reduced confl icts, and improved overall governance of water, land, and other resources. Integrated landscape management is thus a useful approach to enhance the intensifi cation of dryland cropping systems and will, in many locations (but not always), result in multiple wins— including improved farm productivity, water benefi ts at the farm and landscape levels, carbon sequestration, biodiversity and other ecosystem services benefi ts, and higher climate resilience. Various policies and related interventions can be used to trigger and accelerate the scaling up of these benefi ts through integrated landscape management across Sub-Saharan African drylands to restore and increase household and ecological resilience. Policies are needed to develop the framework conditions necessary to both initiate new programs and modify and scale up existing restoration and resilience efforts. The book highlights policy options, covering six broad intervention areas: (1) Clarify land rights and responsibilities; (2) Encourage multistakeholder involvement and collective action; (3) Overcome institutional barriers to integrated landscape management; (4) Create conditions for adaptive planning and management; (5) Create mechanisms and supporting policies for sustainable and long-term fi nancing of integrated landscape management; and (6) Invest in a solid evidence base and knowledge-sharing platforms for integrated landscape management.

Soil Management of Smallholder Agriculture

Soil Management of Smallholder Agriculture Author Rattan Lal
ISBN-10 9781466598584
Release 2014-11-24
Pages 420
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Nearly two billion people depend on hundreds of millions of smallholder farmers for food security. Yet, these farmers’ lives also hang in the balance due to their extreme vulnerability to the risks of soil degradation and depletion, soil exhaustion, climate change, and numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Soil Management of Smallholder Agriculture explores the potential smallholder agriculture hold for advancing global food security and outlines the challenges to achieving this goal. The book addresses the challenges and opportunities that resource-poor and small landholders face and provides recommended management practices to alleviate soil-related constraints, and increase and sustain crop yield and production. It discusses the cultural, economic, social, and technological aspects of sustainable soil management for smallholder farmers. It then examines soil-related and institutional constraints, principles of sustainable agriculture, soil quality improvement, nutrient and soil fertility management, soil carbon sequestration, soil security, efficient use of resources, and agronomic production. Edited by experts, the book makes the case for the adoption of proven technologies of sustainable intensification, producing more from less, both for advancing agronomic production and adapting to changing climate. It outlines a strategy that will usher in a soil-based Green Revolution by increasing the use efficiency of energy-based inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation to restore soil quality, and sequestering carbon in the terrestrial ecosystems. This strategy helps small farms narrow the gap between the actual and attainable crop yield.

Integrated Plant Nutrient Management in Sub Saharan Africa

Integrated Plant Nutrient Management in Sub Saharan Africa Author
ISBN-10 0851998852
Release 2002
Pages 384
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Soil degradation and nutrient depletion have become serious threats to agricultural productivity in Africa. Soils cannot supply the quantities of nutrients required and yield levels decline rapidly once cropping commences. This book addresses these issues and includes papers from an international symposium held at Cotonou, Benin, October 9-12, 2000, organized by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria and the Department of Land Management of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. In five main parts it marks the end of a first phase of collaborative research on "Balanced Nutrient Management Systems for the Moist Savanna and Humid Forest Zones of Africa" and concludes with recommendations, providing essential reading for crop and soil scientists.

Sustainable Intensification in Smallholder Agriculture

Sustainable Intensification in Smallholder Agriculture Author Ingrid Oborn
ISBN-10 9781317212010
Release 2017-02-17
Pages 388
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Sustainable intensification has recently been developed and adopted as a key concept and driver for research and policy in sustainable agriculture. It includes ecological, economic and social dimensions, where food and nutrition security, gender and equity are crucial components. This book describes different aspects of systems research in agriculture in its broadest sense, where the focus is moved from farming systems to livelihoods systems and institutional innovation. Much of the work represents outputs of the three CGIAR Research Programs on Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics, Aquatic Agricultural Systems and Dryland Systems. The chapters are based around four themes: the conceptual underpinnings of systems research; sustainable intensification in practice; integrating nutrition, gender and equity in research for improved livelihoods; and systems and institutional innovation. While most of the case studies are from countries and agro-ecological zones in Africa, there are also some from Latin America, Southeast Asia and the Pacific.

Agrimonde Scenarios and Challenges for Feeding the World in 2050

Agrimonde     Scenarios and Challenges for Feeding the World in 2050 Author Sandrine Paillard
ISBN-10 9789401787451
Release 2014-04-14
Pages 250
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How will the world be able to feed close to 9 billion people in 2050 and still maintain the ecosystems? In this perspective, INRA and CIRAD launched the initiative, in 2006, to develop a foresight project for analysing issues pertaining to the world's food and agricultural systems on the 2050 timeline. This book provides a synthetic presentation of the main conclusions that this foresight project has yielded. First, it recapitulates the main statistical references for the period 1961 to 2003, before going on to describe the Agribiom simulation tool used to calculate food biomass resource use balances. Two scenarios on the 2050 timeline are then considered: Agrimonde GO is a trend-based scenario that bets on economic growth to feed the world, in a context where environmental protection is not a priority; in contrast, the idea in Agrimonde 1 is to feed the world while preserving its ecosystems.

Climate Change Modelling Planning and Policy for Agriculture

Climate Change Modelling  Planning and Policy for Agriculture Author Anil Kumar Singh
ISBN-10 9788132221579
Release 2015-03-16
Pages 245
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It is well known that the impacts of climate change are tangible and hence there can be no debate about the need for appropriate adaptation measures, on a priority basis. However, it is equally important to recognize the fact that adaptation measures actually represent a dynamic synthesis of interventions pertaining to multiple systems. These are particularly of water, soil characteristics, genotypic and phenotypic variations and their expressions, age-correlated biochemical changes aligned with planting schedules and favorable weather/climate conditions. Nutrients, occurrence and distribution of associated vegetation including crop mixes also influence productivity. The overarching aspect of farming practice wields significant influence on the outcome and hence it is important to be clear about the particular focus of the investigations being carried out and reported in a suitable manner. It is essential to recognize that scientific research in agriculture in India has always produced valuable results of direct relevance to her people. Importantly, preparedness to tackle disasters due to inclement weather system has prominently featured on the agenda. The recent focus on climate change and impacts has provided the necessary impetus to reorganize the framework of investigation to capture the specifics of such impacts. In this context, the importance of micro climate variations too viz-a-viz the larger scales of impacts cannot be overemphasized. It will be useful to also help characterize natural variations versus artificially induced variations, helping us understand the complexities of individual and synergistic impacts too. Obviously, the limits and limitations of models could determine the spread and depth of the outcomes of investigations. Empirical evidences to reinforce assumptions have to also be documented with utmost care; guided by an understanding of the limits of tolerance, limiting factors, and the precautionary principle especially in the public policy interface. The present volume therefore, showcases these strands with the fond hope that they will stimulate further thinking and enable appropriate action.

Climate Change Extreme Events and Disaster Risk Reduction

Climate Change  Extreme Events and Disaster Risk Reduction Author Suraj Mal
ISBN-10 9783319564692
Release 2017-12-05
Pages 309
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This book discusses the science, causes, impacts and risk reduction strategies for climate change and disasters. It focuses on the use of traditional knowledge, new innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels in order to promote sustainable development goals in general and disaster risk reduction in particular. The global climate has changed substantially over the last century. There is strong evidence of global climate change in the form of increase in air and sea surface temperature, recession of glaciers, changes and shifting of climate regimes, increasing number of extreme events and sea levels changes. The increasing frequency of climate change induced disasters in particular is posing a threat to resilience, lives and livelihoods at global, regional and local levels. Major ecosystems of the world have experienced several climate induced disaster events in recent past. This book provides new insights into the occurrence and impacts of climatic extremes and strategies for disaster risk reduction. It includes studies on rainfall and temperature trends, floods and drought disasters, weather and climatic related disasters in mountains, changes in plant activities, risk assessment and responses in different ecosystems of the world. The book is particularly useful for environmental and disaster managers, researchers and graduate students, as well as policy makers.