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Targeting Peace

Targeting Peace Author Mikael Eriksson
ISBN-10 9781317046745
Release 2016-04-01
Pages 306
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In recent years, the international community has increasingly come to abandon the use of comprehensive sanctions in favour of targeted sanctions. Unlike adopting a coercive strategy on entire states, actors like the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU) have come to resort to measures that are aimed at individuals, groups and government members. Targeted sanctions involve adopting measures such as asset freezes, travel bans, commodity sanctions, as well as arms embargoes. Eriksson argues that recent changes in the practice of sanctions from comprehensive to targeted sanctions requires a new way of understanding international sanctions practice. Not only do we need to rethink our methodology to assess recent practice, but also to rethink the very theory of sanctions. This valuable new perspective provides recent thinking on targeted sanctions, trends in practice and unique case studies for evaluation. Based on substantial research, this is a must-read for students, scholars and practitioners interested in international politics.



Targeted Sanctions

Targeted Sanctions Author Thomas J. Biersteker
ISBN-10 9781107134218
Release 2016-04-18
Pages 368
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Systematically analyzes the impacts and the effectiveness of UN targeted sanctions over the past quarter century.



European Union Sanctions and Foreign Policy

European Union Sanctions and Foreign Policy Author Clara Portela
ISBN-10 9780415552165
Release 2010
Pages 206
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Winner of the THESEUS promising award for Research on European Integration 2011. Sanctions are an important tool within the foreign policy of the European Union, which have until now remained obscure to both scholars and the general public. This book examines sanctions as a political tool of influence and evaluates the efficacy of sanctions imposed by the EU against third countries and their ability to bring about the desired outcome. While the principal sanctions activity of the EU takes place under the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the author also considers the suspension of development aid under the ACP-EU Partnership Agreement, the withdrawal of trade privileges under the Generalized System of Preferences and other sanctions outside these frameworks. Reviewing the sanctions practice of the EU in its virtual entirety, Portela assesses the relevance of classical sanctions theory by testing a series of hypotheses with empirical case-studies attempting to identify the determinants of success of EU sanctions. Enhancing our understanding of the EU's international role, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of international politics, security studies, EU studies, human rights and democracy, conflict management, IPE and development studies.



EU Sanctions

EU Sanctions Author Iain Cameron
ISBN-10 1780681410
Release 2013
Pages 268
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For the European Union, the famous "Kadi" cases have generated a wealth of articles dealing with the legal problems involved in EU implementation of UN Security Council sanctions. Less attention has been devoted to the numerous legal problems involved in the EU's own "autonomous" sanctions system. The subject is nevertheless topical, since there is a growing use of sanctions and the legal basis for sanctions has been changed with the Lisbon Treaty. EU sanctions are used both against regimes and against suspected terrorist financing. But these sanctions have developed "organically," without sufficient thought being given to certain basic issues (inter alia concerning procedural fairness). This has resulted in considerable litigation before the Court of Justice (CJEU). The new legal basis and the recent judgments from the CJEU have solved some difficulties, but "taking sanctions seriously" means new problems for national implementation, spanning a variety of areas: criminal law, constitutional law, international law, and European law. The essays in this book, written by distinguished scholars in their respective fields, deal with some of these issues: How should we go about measuring the impact(s) of targeted sanctions? * How coherent are these "administrative" measures of blacklisting with other existing and proposed EU measures in justice and home affairs promoting the criminal law model for dealing with the problem of terrorism (investigation, trial, conviction, and punishment/confiscation of assets)? * How can the problems caused for fair trial by the use of intelligence material be solved? * If we can (or must) continue to have sanctions in the area of terrorist financing, can they be made compatible with fundamental principles of national criminal law and criminal policy? * How does a system of "composite" decision-making (when the measure is partly national and partly at the EU level) avoid the risk that gaps arise in systems of legal protection? * What is the spillover effect of "over broad" quasi-criminal legislation directed at organizations, in the constitutional/human rights of freedom of expression and association? * How do EU sanctions fit into, and compare to, national systems for the proscription of terrorist organizations? * Should the same legal safeguards be applicable both for "regime" sanctions and anti-terrorist sanctions? (Series: Supranational Criminal Law: Capita Selecta - Vol. 15)



The United Nations Security Council in the Age of Human Rights

The United Nations Security Council in the Age of Human Rights Author Jared Genser
ISBN-10 9781107040076
Release 2014-06-05
Pages 544
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The first comprehensive look at the human rights dimensions of the work of the only UN body capable of compelling action by its member states.



Coercing Constraining and Signalling

Coercing  Constraining and Signalling Author Francesco Giumelli
ISBN-10 9781907301209
Release 2011-09-13
Pages 226
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The costs of military ventures and concern for human rights has increased the importance of international sanctions in the twenty fist century, but our knowledge is still limited in this area. The United Nations sanctions on Libya, Al Qaeda and Rwanda, or the European Union restrictive measures on the US, Transnistria and Uzbekistan are sparsely covered by the media and attempts to measure the effectiveness of any of these sanctions comes up against the fundamental (unanswered) question: What can sanctions do and when? This book undertakes an innovative approach that overcomes these problems by enhancing our understanding of how sanctions work and by explaining what we can expect from their imposition. Through the analysis of the sanctioning experience of the United Nations and the European Union after the Cold War, the investigation tests a comprehensive theoretical model and concludes that the context in which sanctions are imposed is a crucial element in deciding the type of sanctions adopted. Giumelli shakes the pre-constituted conceptions that we have on sanctions and sets the terms for more constructive debates in the future.



How EU Sanctions Work

How EU Sanctions Work Author Francesco Giumelli
ISBN-10 OCLC:842846792
Release 2013
Pages 46
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The European Union has devoted growing attention to sanctions since the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty. In total, the Council has imposed Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) sanctions targeting countries, economic sectors, groups, individuals and entities on 27 different occasions. The novelty in the area of sanctions is that targets are not only states, as in the recent cases of Iran and Syria, but they are also individuals and non-state entities, e.g. anti-terrorist lists, President Robert Mugabe and his associates, and several companies connected with the military junta in Burma/Myanmar. Additionally, the contexts in which sanctions are utilised can be diverse, ranging from the protection of human rights to crisis management and non-proliferation. Despite the fact that the effectiveness of sanctions has been much debated, the EU has developed a sanctioning policy and intensified its adoption of sanctions. Sanctions were traditionally seen as a way to impose economic penalties as a means of extracting political concessions from targets, but EU sanctions do not always impose a cost nor do they always seek to induce behavioural change. To this extent, a new narrative may be needed.



UN Sanctions and Conflict

UN Sanctions and Conflict Author Andrea Charron
ISBN-10 9781136662973
Release 2011-07-08
Pages 248
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This book examines the application of UN Security Council's mandatory sanctions since 1946, and, in particular, the regimes adopted for specific types of conflict. It addresses four distinct threats to peace and security: interstate conflicts, intrastate conflicts, norm-breaking states and terrorism.



South Sudan

South Sudan Author Matthew Arnold
ISBN-10 9780190257262
Release 2013-01-11
Pages 256
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In July 2011 the Republic of South Sudan achieved independence, concluding what had been Africa's longest running civil war. The process leading to independence was driven by the Sudan Peoples' Liberation Movement, a primarily Southern rebel force and political movement intent on bringing about the reformed unity of the whole Sudan. Through the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005, a six year peace process unfolded in the form of an interim period premised upon 'making unity attractive' for the Sudan. A failed exercise, it culminated in an almost unanimous vote for independence by Southerners in a referendum held in January 2011. Violence has continued since, and a daunting possibility for South Sudan has arisen - to have won independence only to descend into its own civil war, with the regime in Khartoum aiding and abetting factionalism to keep the new state weak and vulnerable. Achieving a durable peace will be a massive challenge, and resolving the issues that so inflamed Southerners historically - unsupportive governance, broad feelings of exploitation and marginalisation and fragile ethnic politics - will determine South Sudan's success or failure at statehood. A story of transformation and of victory against the odds, this book reviews South Sudan's modern history as a contested region and assesses the political, social and security dynamics that will shape its immediate future as Africa's newest independent state.



Sanctions and the Search for Security

Sanctions and the Search for Security Author David Cortright
ISBN-10 158826078X
Release 2002
Pages 249
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Following on the publication of The Sanctions Decade - lauded as the definitive history and accounting of United Nations sanctions in the 1990s - David Cortright and George Lopez continue their collaboration to examine the changing context and meaning of sanctions and the security dilemmas that the Security Council now faces. Cortright and Lopez note that, despite widespread disagreement about the effectiveness of UN sanctions and the need for reform, the Security Council continues to impose sanctions, and it maintains ongoing measures in eight countries. Exploring the dynamics of recent developments, the authors assess a range of new multilateral approaches to sanctions and economic statecraft, review the heated debate over the humanitarian impact of sanctions, and consider the increasingly important role of NGOs in UN policymaking. They conclude with a framework for future policy, as well as specific recommendations for enhancing the viability of smart sanctions strategies.



Strengthening the Rule of Law through the UN Security Council

Strengthening the Rule of Law through the UN Security Council Author Jeremy Farrall
ISBN-10 9781317338390
Release 2016-04-14
Pages 304
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The UN Security Council formally acknowledged an obligation to promote justice and the rule of law in 2003. This volume examines the extent to which the Council has honoured this commitment when exercising its powers under the UN Charter to maintain international peace and security. It discusses both how the concept of the rule of law regulates, or influences, Security Council activity and how the Council has in turn shaped the notion of the rule of law. It explores in particular how this relationship has affected the Security Council’s three most prominent tools for the maintenance of international peace and security: peacekeeping, sanctions and force. In doing so, this volume identifies strategies for better promotion of the rule of law by the Security Council. This book will be of interest to scholars and students of international law, international relations, international development and peacekeeping.



Mediation and Liberal Peacebuilding

Mediation and Liberal Peacebuilding Author Mikael Eriksson
ISBN-10 9780415638357
Release 2013
Pages 195
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Despite the wealth of research on external interventions and practices of Western peacebuilding, many scholars tend to rely on findings in the so-called 'post-agreement' phase of interventions. As a result, most mainstream peacebuilding literature pays limited or no attention to the linkages that exist between mediation practices in the negotiation phase and processes in the post-peace agreement phase of intervention. By linking the motives and practices of interveners during negotiation and implementation phases into a more integrated theoretical framework, this book makes a unique contribution to the on-going debate on the so-called Western 'liberal' models of peacebuilding. Drawing upon in-depth case-studies this innovative volume examines a variety of political motives behind third party interventions, thus challenging the very founding concept of mediation literature. ... [from the publisher]



Smart Sanctions

Smart Sanctions Author David Cortright
ISBN-10 0742501434
Release 2002-01-01
Pages 259
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Smart Sanctions explores the emerging concept of targeted sanctions and provides a comprehensive framework for new sanctions strategies for the 21st century. It includes essays by experts and analysts from the United Nations community, the European Union, the United States Government, and the academic community. Visit our website for sample chapters!



The Handbook of Global Security Policy

The Handbook of Global Security Policy Author Mary Kaldor
ISBN-10 9781118533796
Release 2014-03-20
Pages 560
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This Handbook brings together 30 state-of-the-art essays covering the essential aspects of global security research and practice for the 21st century. Embraces a broad definition of security that extends beyond the threat of foreign military attack to cover new risks for violence Offers comprehensive coverage framed around key security concepts, risks, policy tools, and global security actors Discusses pressing contemporary issues including terrorism, disarmament, genocide, sustainability, international peacekeeping, state-building, natural disasters, energy and food security, climate change, and cyber warfare Includes insightful and accessible contributions from around the world aimed at a broad base of scholars, students, practitioners, and policymakers



Economic Sanctions under International Law

Economic Sanctions under International Law Author Ali Z. Marossi
ISBN-10 9789462650510
Release 2015-03-03
Pages 249
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Since the Second World War, States have increasingly relied upon economic sanctions programs, in lieu of military action, to exert pressure and generally to fill the awkward gap between verbal denunciation and action. Whether or not sanctions are effective remains a point of contention among policymakers. Frequently asked questions include whether any legal order constrains the use of sanctions, and, if so, what the limits on the use of sanctions are. This volume gathers contributions from leading experts in various relevant fields providing a seminal study on the limits of economic sanctions under international law, including accountability mechanisms when sanctioning States go too far. Where there are gaps in the law, the authors provide novel and important contributions as to how existing legal structures can be used to ensure that economic sanctions remain within an accepted legal order. This book is a most valuable contribution to the literature in the fields of international economic law, public international law and international dispute resolution. Ali Z. Marossi is an advisory board member of The Hague Center for Law and Arbitration. Marisa R. Bassett is Associate Legal Officer in the Office of the Prosecutor for the ICTY and former Associate at White & Case LLP.



Economic Sanctions Reconsidered

Economic Sanctions Reconsidered Author Gary Clyde Hufbauer
ISBN-10 9780881324822
Release 2008-11-15
Pages 248
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Economic sanctions continue to play an important role in the response to terrorism, nuclear proliferation, military conflicts, and other foreign policy crises. But poor design and implementation of sanctions policies often mean that they fall short of their desired effects. This landmark study, first published in 1985, delves into the rich experience of sanctions in the 20th century to harvest lessons on how to use sanctions more effectively. This volume is the updated third edition of this widely cited study. It chronicles and examines 170 cases of economic sanctions imposed since World War I. Fifty of these cases were launched in the 1990s and are new to this edition. Special attention is paid to new developments arising from the end of the Cold War and increasing globalization of the world economy. Analyzing a range of economic and political factors that can influence the success of a sanctions episode, the authors distill a set of commandments to guide policymakers in the effective use of sanctions.



The Evolution of UN Sanctions

The Evolution of UN Sanctions Author Enrico Carisch
ISBN-10 9783319600055
Release 2017-10-27
Pages 501
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Marking the 50th anniversary of UN sanctions, this work examines the evolution of sanctions from a primary instrument of economic warfare to a tool of prevention and protection against global conflicts and human rights abuses. The rise of sanctions as a versatile and frequently used tool to confront the challenges of armed conflicts, terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and violations of international humanitarian and human rights law, is rooted in centuries of trial and error of coercive diplomacy. The authors examine the history of UN sanctions and their potential for confronting emerging and future threats, including: cyberterrorism and information warfare, environmental crimes, and corruption. This work begins with a historical overview of sanctions and the development of the United Nations system. It then explores the consequences of the superpowers' Cold War stalemate, the role of the Non-Aligned Movement, and the subsequent transformation from a blunt, comprehensive approach to smart and fairer sanctions. By calibrating its embargoes, asset freezes and travel bans, the UN developed a set of tools to confront the new category of risk actors: armed non-state actors and militias, global terrorists, arms merchants and conflict minerals, and cyberwarriors. Section II analyzes all thirty UN sanctions regimes adopted over the past fifty years. These narratives explore the contemporaneous political and security context that led to the introduction of specific sanctions measures and enforcement efforts, often spearheaded for good or ill by the permanent five members of the Security Council. Finally, Section III offers a qualitative analysis of the UN sanctions system to identify possible areas for improvements to the current Security Council structure dominated by the five veto-wielding victors of World War II. This work will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in criminal justice, particularly with an interest in security, as well as related fields such as international relations and political science.