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The Biofilm Primer

The Biofilm Primer Author J. William Costerton
ISBN-10 9783540680222
Release 2007-03-06
Pages 199
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This book details the widely accepted hypothesis that the majority of bacteria in virtually all ecosystems grow in matrix-enclosed biofilms. The author, who first proposed this biofilm hypothesis, uses direct evidence from microscopy and from molecular techniques, arguing cogently for moving beyond conventional culture methods that dominated microbiology in the last century. Bacteria grow predominantly in biofilms in natural, engineered, and pathogenic ecosystems; this book provides a solid basis for the understanding of bacterial processes in environmental, industrial, agricultural, dental and medical microbiology. Using a unique "ecological" perspective, the author explores the commensal and pathogenic colonization of human organ systems.



The Root Canal Biofilm

The Root Canal Biofilm Author Luis E. Chávez de Paz
ISBN-10 9783662474150
Release 2015-10-20
Pages 366
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This book presents the current state of research on the basic scientific aspects of root canal biofilm biology within a clinically applicable context. Root canal biofilms are complex polymicrobial structures adhering to the root canal surface that are formed by microorganisms invading the pulpal space of teeth, and are associated with persistent root canal infections. Concerted efforts to study root canal biofilms have been made in the past decade, resulting in the publication of observational and experimental studies that detail the morphology and biology of these structures in infected root canals. In addition to confirming that bacteria in root canals do not exist in free-floating planktonic states as previously assumed, this new information on root canal biofilm infections has provided an opportunity to re-evaluate conventional clinical protocols and improve endodontic therapeutic measures.



Marine and Industrial Biofouling

Marine and Industrial Biofouling Author Hans-Curt Flemming
ISBN-10 9783540697961
Release 2008-12-11
Pages 334
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Biofouling is a costly problem, and it is encountered in a wide spectrum of technical systems, ranging from the shipping industry, power industry, water purification, automobile industry, paint and pharmaceuticals, to the microelectronics and food industries. Micro- and macroorganisms attach to surfaces and accumulate there, forming biofilms that cause interferences – a fundamentally natural process. Usually, a medical paradigm is applied: kill biofilms and the problem is solved. This leads to excessive biocide use. However, the success of this strategy is very limited; furthermore it leads to equipment damage and environmental pollution. Simply trying to kill the fouling organisms is clearly not seen as a successful strategy while cleaning is put forward as much more important. In this book, strategies to prevent adhesion, to mitigate the extent and effects of biofouling, and to detect and remove fouling layers are presented. Holistic approaches to the fouling process are elaborated, taking into account options such as nutrient limitation, repellent and easy-to-clean surfaces for fouling layer limitation, and replacing biocides with more environmentally friendly methods – in other words: learning how to live with fouling biofilms without suffering the damage they can do.



Biofilm Highlights

Biofilm Highlights Author Hans-Curt Flemming
ISBN-10 3642199402
Release 2011-08-02
Pages 244
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Living in biofilms is the common way of life of microorganisms, transiently immobilized in their matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), interacting in many ways and using the matrix as an external digestion and protection system. This is how they have organized their life in the environment, in the medical context and in technical systems – and has helped make them the oldest, most successful and ubiquitous form of life. In this book, hot spots in current biofilm research are presented in critical and sometimes provocative chapters. This serves a twofold purpose: to provide an overview and to inspire further discussions. Above all, the book seeks to stimulate lateral thinking.



Bacterial Biofilms

Bacterial Biofilms Author Tony Romeo
ISBN-10 3540754180
Release 2008-02-26
Pages 294
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Throughout the biological world, bacteria thrive predominantly in surface-attached, matrix-enclosed, multicellular communities or biofilms, as opposed to isolated planktonic cells. This choice of lifestyle is not trivial, as it involves major shifts in the use of genetic information and cellular energy, and has profound consequences for bacterial physiology and survival. Growth within a biofilm can thwart immune function and antibiotic therapy and thereby complicate the treatment of infectious diseases, especially chronic and foreign device-associated infections. Modern studies of many important biofilms have advanced well beyond the descriptive stage, and have begun to provide molecular details of the structural, biochemical, and genetic processes that drive biofilm formation and its dispersion. There is much diversity in the details of biofilm development among various species, but there are also commonalities. In most species, environmental and nutritional conditions greatly influence biofilm development. Similar kinds of adhesive molecules often promote biofilm formation in diverse species. Signaling and regulatory processes that drive biofilm development are often conserved, especially among related bacteria. Knowledge of such processes holds great promise for efforts to control biofilm growth and combat biofilm-associated infections. This volume focuses on the biology of biofilms that affect human disease, although it is by no means comprehensive. It opens with chapters that provide the reader with current perspectives on biofilm development, physiology, environmental, and regulatory effects, the role of quorum sensing, and resistance/phenotypic persistence to antimicrobial agents during biofilm growth.



Antibiofilm Agents

Antibiofilm Agents Author Kendra P. Rumbaugh
ISBN-10 9783642538339
Release 2014-05-08
Pages 497
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This book provides a survey of recent advances in the development of antibiofilm agents for clinical and environmental applications. The fact that microbes exist in structured communities called biofilms has slowly become accepted within the medical community. We now know that over 80% of all infectious diseases are biofilm-related; however, significant challenges still lie in our ability to diagnose and treat these extremely recalcitrant infections. Written by experts from around the globe, this book offers a valuable resource for medical professionals seeking to treat biofilm-related disease, academic and industry researchers interested in drug discovery and instructors who teach courses on microbial pathogenesis and medical microbiology.



Handbook of Hygiene Control in the Food Industry

Handbook of Hygiene Control in the Food Industry Author H. L. M. Lelieveld
ISBN-10 9780081001974
Release 2016-06-10
Pages 756
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Handbook of Hygiene Control in the Food Industry, Second Edition, continues to be an authoritative reference for anyone who needs hands-on practical information to improve best practices in food safety and quality. The book is written by leaders in the field who understand the complex issues of control surrounding food industry design, operations, and processes, contamination management methods, route analysis processing, allergenic residues, pest management, and more. Professionals and students will find a comprehensive account of risk analysis and management solutions they can use to minimize risks and hazards plus tactics and best practices for creating a safe food supply, farm to fork. Presents the latest research and development in the field of hygiene, offering a broad range of the microbiological risks associated with food processing Provides practical hygiene related solutions in food facilities to minimize foodborne pathogens and decrease the occurrence of foodborne disease Includes the latest information on biofilm formation and detection for prevention and control of pathogens as well as pathogen resistance



Biofilm based Healthcare associated Infections

Biofilm based Healthcare associated Infections Author Gianfranco Donelli
ISBN-10 9783319097824
Release 2014-11-10
Pages 195
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The aim of this book is to provide readers with a wide overview of the main healthcare-associated infections caused by bacteria and fungi able to grow as biofilm. The recently acquired knowledge on the pivotal role played by biofilm-growing microorganisms in healthcare-related infections has given a new dynamic to detection, prevention and treatment of these infections in patients admitted to both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities. Clinicians, hygienists and microbiologists will be updated by leading scientists on the state-of-art of biofilm-based infections and on the most innovative strategies for prevention and treatment of these infections, often caused by emerging multidrug-resistant biofilm-growing microorganisms.



Microbicides in Coatings

Microbicides in Coatings Author Frank Sauer
ISBN-10 9783866308978
Release 2017-07-04
Pages 156
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All about biocides for coatings: When it comes to protecting coatings, it is essential to strike the right balance between controlling germs in order to avoid economic damage on the one hand and tolerating microbial life where it is necessary and useful on the other. The new book from Frank Sauer provides a comprehensive overview of the working mechanisms and possible applications of microbicides for coatings - invaluable for formulators and technicians as well as for business people with a basic knowledge of chemistry and biology.



Biofilm and Materials Science

Biofilm and Materials Science Author Hideyuki Kanematsu
ISBN-10 9783319145655
Release 2015-04-09
Pages 196
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This book explains the formation of biofilm on materials surfaces in an industrial setting. The authors describe new developments in understanding of biofilm formation, detection, and control from the viewpoint of materials science and engineering. The book details the range of issues caused by biofilm formation and the variety of affected industries.



Culture Negative Orthopedic Biofilm Infections

Culture Negative Orthopedic Biofilm Infections Author Garth D. Ehrlich
ISBN-10 9783642295546
Release 2012-12-18
Pages 146
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During the recent transition between acute diseases caused by swarms of single planktonic bacteria, and chronic infections caused by bacteria growing in slime-enclosed biofilms, a general clinical consensus has emerged that pathologies with bacterial etiologies are frequently culture negative. Because biofilm infections now affect 17 million Americans per year (killing approximately 450,000), the suggestion that these common and lethal infections regularly go unnoticed by the only FDA-approved method for their detection and characterization is a matter of urgent concern. Biologically, we would expect that planktonic bacterial cells would colonize any new surface, including the surface of an agar plate, while the specialized sessile cells of a biofilm community would have no such proclivity. In the study of biofilm diseases ranging from otitis media to prostatitis, it was found that direct microscopy and DNA- and RNA-based molecular methods regularly document the presence of living bacteria in tissues and samples that are culture negative. The editors selected orthopedic biofilm infections as the subject of this book because these infections occur against a background of microbiological sterility in which modern molecular methods would be expected to find bacterial DNA, RNA-based microscopic methods would be expected to locate bacterial cells, and cultures would be negative. Moreover, in Orthopedics we find an already biofilm-adapted surgical group in which current strategies are based on the meticulous removal of compromised tissues, antibiotic options as based on high biofilm-killing local doses, and there are practical bedside strategies for dealing with biofilm infections. So here is where the new paradigm of biofilm infection meets the equally new paradigm of the culture negativity of biofilms, and this volume presents a conceptual synthesis that may soon combine the most effective molecular methods for the detection and identification of bacteria with a surgical discipline that is ready to help patients.



Control of Biofilm Infections by Signal Manipulation

Control of Biofilm Infections by Signal Manipulation Author Naomi Balaban
ISBN-10 3540738533
Release 2007-11-28
Pages 175
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The number of patients affected by and dying from what can be considered as a "biofilm disease" is higher than heart disease and cancer combined. Thus, this is a hugely important work that describes the molecular mechanisms of cell-to-cell communication among bacterial cells in a biofilm, the development of antibiofilm inhibitors such as quorum-sensing inhibitors, and the use of biofilm inhibitors to prevent and treat bacterial infections in humans and other animals.



Microbial Biofilms

Microbial Biofilms Author Gianfranco Donelli
ISBN-10 1493904663
Release 2014-03-25
Pages 380
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The discovery that most of the chronic infections in humans, including the oral, lung, vaginal and foreign body-associated infections, are biofilm-based, has prompted the need to design new and properly focused preventive and therapeutic strategies for these diseases. Microbial Biofilms: Methods and Protocols provides a detailed description of the currently available methods and protocols to investigate bacterial and fungal biofilms, exhaustively illustrated and critically annotated in 25 chapters written by authors well known for their experience in the respective fields. The book has joined together microbiologists and specialists in infectious diseases, hygiene and public health involved in exploring different aspects of microbial biofilms as well as in designing new methods and/or developing innovative laboratory protocols. Written in the successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and easily accessible, Microbial Biofilms: Methods and Protocols presents readers with the most established and validated experimental procedures to investigate microbial biofilms.



Freshwater Microplastics

Freshwater Microplastics Author Martin Wagner
ISBN-10 9783319616155
Release 2017-11-21
Pages 303
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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This volume focuses on microscopic plastic debris, also referred to as microplastics, which have been detected in aquatic environments around the globe and have accordingly raised serious concerns. The book explores whether microplastics represent emerging contaminants in freshwater systems, an area that remains underrepresented to date. Given the complexity of the issue, the book covers the current state-of-research on microplastics in rivers and lakes, including analytical aspects, environmental concentrations and sources, modelling approaches, interactions with biota, and ecological implications. To provide a broader perspective, the book also discusses lessons learned from nanomaterials and the implications of plastic debris for regulation, politics, economy, and society. In a research field that is rapidly evolving, it offers a solid overview for environmental chemists, engineers, and toxicologists, as well as water managers and policy-makers.



Biofilm Infections

Biofilm Infections Author Thomas Bjarnsholt
ISBN-10 1489982280
Release 2014-10-11
Pages 314
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This book will cover both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections such as diagnostics and treatment regimes. A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that that less than 0.1% of the total microbial biomass lives in the planktonic mode of growth. The term was coined in 1978 by Costerton et al. who defined the term biofilm for the first time.In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognised that the biofilmmode of growth was relevant to microbiology. Lately many articles have been published on the clinical implications of bacterial biofilms. Both original articles and reviews concerning the biofilm problem are available.



Aquatic Biofilms

Aquatic Biofilms Author Helena Guasch Anna M. Romani
ISBN-10 9781910190180
Release 2016-01-15
Pages 242
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Biofilms in aquatic ecosystems colonize various surfaces (sand, rocks, leaves) and play a key role in the environment. Aquatic biofilms supply energy and organic matter to the food chain, they are important in recycling organic matter and contribute to water quality. This book is a concise review of the current knowledge on aquatic biofilms with an emphasis on the characteristics and ecology of biofilms in natural ecosystems and a focus on biofilm applications linked to water pollution problems. The volume is divided into three sections: Biofilms Mode of Life; Biofilms and Pollution; and New Technologies using Biofilms. In the first section the aquatic biofilm mode of life is described and reviewed. Key aspects covered include the three-dimensional structure and cell to cell communication of biofilms, their dynamic prokaryotic diversity and their vital role in biogeochemical cycles. In the second part of the book the use of biofilms in water quality is comprehensively covered. Chapters discuss biofilms in water quality, environmental risk assessment, monitoring and ecotoxicological approaches. Further topics include biofilm development in sewage pipes and the potential for microbial transformations in these systems. The final section focuses on important examples of novel technologies based on biofilms for water treatment, including the biodegradation of pollutants, the application of bioelectrogenic biofilms, and the biofilm capacity for nitrogen removal. With contributions from ecologists, engineers and microbiologists this book presents scientists and technicians with up-to-date knowledge and a clear understanding of aquatic biofilms from different and complementary points of view. An essential reference book for anyone working with biofilms.



Antimicrobial Coatings and Modifications on Medical Devices

Antimicrobial Coatings and Modifications on Medical Devices Author Zheng Zhang
ISBN-10 9783319574943
Release 2017-06-28
Pages 322
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Based on a fundamental understanding of the interaction between bacteria and materials, this timely volume emphasizes the latest research in the antimicrobial interfacial design and provides an invaluable blueprint for improving antimicrobial performance on devices and products. Antimicrobial Coatings and Modifications targets reduction of microbial accumulation on biomedical and industrial materials through changing interfacial characteristics. Applying a viable antimicrobial coating or modification to resist alarming threats is a highly demanding requirement for many medical and engineering applications. Many contemporary books in the area of antimicrobial solution focus on applying antimicrobial agents or materials that can kill bacteria. The volume pays more attention to eliminating bacterial contamination and biofilm formation through surface characteristics with minimized bacterial resistance and environmental impact.