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The Claustrum

The Claustrum Author John R. Smythies
ISBN-10 9780124047228
Release 2013-11-11
Pages 408
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The present day is witnessing an explosion of our understanding of how the brain works at all levels, in which complexity is piled on complexity, and mechanisms of astonishing elegance are being continually discovered. This process is most developed in the major areas of the brain, such as the cortex, thalamus, and striatum. The Claustrum instead focuses on a small, remote, and, until recently, relatively unknown area of the brain. In recent years, researchers have come to believe that the claustrum is concerned with consciousness, a bold hypothesis supported by the claustrum’s two-way connections with nearly every other region of the brain and its seeming involvement with multisensory integrations—the hallmark of consciousness. The claustrum, previously in a humble position at the back of the stage, might in fact be the conductor of the brain’s orchestra. The Claustrum brings together leading experts on the claustrum from the varied disciplines of neuroscience, providing a state-of-the-art presentation of what is currently known about the claustrum, promising lines of current research (including epigenetics), and projections of new lines of investigation on the horizon. Develops a unifying hypothesis about the claustrum’s role in consciousness, as well as the integration of sensory information and other higher brain functions. Discusses the involvement of the claustrum with autism, schizophrenia, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease Coverage of all aspects of the claustrum, from its evolution and development to promising new lines of research, including epigenetics, provides a platform and point of reference for future investigative efforts



The Claustrum charting a way forward for the brain s most mysterious nucleus

The Claustrum  charting a way forward for the brain   s most mysterious nucleus Author Ariel Y. Deutch
ISBN-10 9782889195428
Release 2015-09-09
Pages
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The claustrum is a long, band-like grey matter structure situated in the ventrolateral telencephalon of most, if not all, mammalian brains. Due to its shape and close proximity to white matter structures and insular cortex, the anatomy and behavioral relevance of the claustrum have proven difficult to study. As a result, disagreements in the literature exist over ontogeny, phylogeny, anatomical boundaries, and connectivity. Despite this, it is generally regarded that the claustrum contains excitatory projection neurons that reciprocally connect to most regions of the cerebral cortex, a feature that has fostered varying hypotheses as to its function. These hypotheses propose multisensory integration, coordination of cortical activity for the generation of conscious percepts, or saliency filtration. The articles of this e-book consider the historical and recent highlights in claustrum structure, hodology, and function and seek to provide a compelling way forward for this “hidden” nucleus.



Neuroimaging Anatomy Meets Function

Neuroimaging  Anatomy Meets Function Author Nivedita Agarwal
ISBN-10 9783319574271
Release 2017-09-12
Pages 275
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This book combines classic MR anatomy with current understanding of human brain function. Recent advances in neuroscience have highlighted the importance of correlating brain anatomy with underlying brain function, since the brain contains a highly sophisticated organization of anatomical and functional relationships that are not readily “visible” with standard imaging. The use of magnetic resonance imaging is rapidly increasing in the field of neuroscience, and remains at the forefront for offering insights into the normal and pathologic structure and function of the human brain. The relatively recent concepts of structural and functional connectivity make it even more important to visualize the brain as a whole rather than looking at its individual parts. This holistic approach is vital in understanding concepts such as neuroplasticity that are currently incorporated into physical and cognitive rehabilitation programs for patients with stroke or neurodegenerative diseases. Ultimately this combined approach may reduce both overdiagnosis and misdiagnosis when integrated into routine clinical routine. This book will be of interest to neuroradiologists, general radiologists and neurologists alike, as well as medical students, residents and fellows.



Evolution of Nervous Systems

Evolution of Nervous Systems Author
ISBN-10 9780128040966
Release 2016-11-23
Pages 2007
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Evolution of Nervous Systems, Second Edition is a unique, major reference which offers the gold standard for those interested both in evolution and nervous systems. All biology only makes sense when seen in the light of evolution, and this is especially true for the nervous system. All animals have nervous systems that mediate their behaviors, many of them species specific, yet these nervous systems all evolved from the simple nervous system of a common ancestor. To understand these nervous systems, we need to know how they vary and how this variation emerged in evolution. In the first edition of this important reference work, over 100 distinguished neuroscientists assembled the current state-of-the-art knowledge on how nervous systems have evolved throughout the animal kingdom. This second edition remains rich in detail and broad in scope, outlining the changes in brain and nervous system organization that occurred from the first invertebrates and vertebrates, to present day fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals, and especially primates, including humans. The book also includes wholly new content, fully updating the chapters in the previous edition and offering brand new content on current developments in the field. Each of the volumes has been carefully restructured to offer expanded coverage of non-mammalian taxa, mammals, primates, and the human nervous system. The basic principles of brain evolution are discussed, as are mechanisms of change. The reader can select from chapters on highly specific topics or those that provide an overview of current thinking and approaches, making this an indispensable work for students and researchers alike. Presents a broad range of topics, ranging from genetic control of development in invertebrates, to human cognition, offering a one-stop resource for the evolution of nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom Incorporates the expertise of over 100 outstanding investigators who provide their conclusions in the context of the latest experimental results Presents areas of disagreement and consensus views that provide a holistic view of the subjects under discussion



Producing and Analyzing Macro Connectomes Current State and Challenges

Producing and Analyzing Macro Connectomes  Current State and Challenges Author Mihail Bota
ISBN-10 9782889199815
Release 2016-10-20
Pages
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Construction of comprehensive and detailed brain regions neuroanatomical connections matrices (macro-connectomes) is necessary to understand how the nervous system is organized and to elucidate how its different parts interact. Macro-connectomes also are the structural foundation of any finer granularity approaches at the neuron classes and types (meso-connectomes) or individual neuron (micro-connectomes) levels. The advent of novel neuroanatomical methods, as well as combinations of classic techniques, form the basis of several large scale projects with the ultimate goal of producing publicly available connectomes at different levels. A parallel approach, that of systematic and comprehensive collation of connectivity data from the published literature and from publicly accessible neuroinformatics platforms, has produced macro-connectomes of different parts of the central nervous system (CNS) in several mammalian species. The emergence of these public platforms that allow for the manipulation of rich connectivity data sets and enable the construction of CNS macro-connectomes in different species may have significant and long lasting implications. Moreover, when these efforts are leveraged by novel statistical methods, they may influence our way of thinking about the brain. Hence, the present brain region-centric paradigm may be challenged by a network-centric one. Ultimately, these projects will provide the information and knowledge for understanding how different neuronal parts communicate and function, developing novel approaches to diseases and disorders, and facilitating translational efforts in neurosciences. With this Research Topic we bring together the current state of macro-connectome related projects including the large scale production of thousands of publicly available neuronatomical experiments, databases with tens of thousands of connectivity records collated from the published literature, and the newest methods for displaying and analyzing this information. This topic also includes a wide range of challenges and how they are addressed - from platforms designed to integrate connectivity data across different sources, species and CNS levels of organization, to languages specifically designed to use these data in models at different scales of resolution, to efforts of 3D reconstruction and data integration, and to approaches for extraction and representation of this knowledge. Finally, we address the present state of different efforts of meso-connectomes construction, and of computational modeling in the context of the information provided by macro-connectomes.



Clinical Neuroanatomy Made Ridiculously Simple

Clinical Neuroanatomy Made Ridiculously Simple Author Stephen Goldberg
ISBN-10 1935660195
Release 2014
Pages 99
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This now-classic text presents the most relevant points in clinical neuroanatomy with mnemonics, humor and case presentations. For neuroanatomy courses and Board review. Includes attached CD-ROM on Neurologic Localization with 3D animated rotations of the brain. Neuroanatomy laboratory tutorial with photographs of brain specimens. Tutorial on how to localize neurologic injuries; Interactive quiz of classic neurologic cases; Windows/Macintosh CD + book. The new edition adds a chapter on neurotransmitters.



The Little Black Book of Neuropsychology

The Little Black Book of Neuropsychology Author Mike R. Schoenberg
ISBN-10 0387769781
Release 2011-01-11
Pages 968
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From translating the patient’s medical records and test results to providing recommendations, the neuropsychological evaluation incorporates the science and practice of neuropsychology, neurology, and psychological sciences. The Little Black Book of Neuropsychology brings the practice and study of neuropsychology into concise step-by-step focus—without skimping on scientific quality. This one-of-a-kind assessment reference complements standard textbooks by outlining signs, symptoms, and complaints according to neuropsychological domain (such as memory, language, or executive function), with descriptions of possible deficits involved, inpatient and outpatient assessment methods, and possible etiologies. Additional chapters offer a more traditional approach to evaluation, discussing specific neurological disorders and diseases in terms of their clinical features, neuroanatomical correlates, and assessment and treatment considerations. Chapters in psychometrics provide for initial understanding of brain-behavior interpretation as well as more advanced principals for neuropsychology practice including new diagnostic concepts and analysis of change in performance over time. For the trainee, beginning clinician or seasoned expert, this user-friendly presentation incorporating ‘quick reference guides’ throughout which will add to the practice armentarium of beginning and seasoned clinicians alike. Key features of The Black Book of Neuropsychology: Concise framework for understanding the neuropsychological referral. Symptoms/syndromes presented in a handy outline format, with dozens of charts and tables. Review of basic neurobehavioral examination procedure. Attention to professional issues, including advances in psychometrics and diagnoses, including tables for reliable change for many commonly used tests. Special “Writing Reports like You Mean It” section and guidelines for answering referral questions. Includes appendices of practical information, including neuropsychological formulary. The Little Black Book of Neuropsychology is an indispensable resource for the range of practitioners and scientists interested in brain-behavior relationships. Particular emphasis is provided for trainees in neuropsychology and neuropsychologists. However, the easy to use format and concise presentation is likely to be of particular value to interns, residents, and fellows studying neurology, neurological surgery, psychiatry, and nurses. Finally, teachers of neuropsychological and neurological assessment may also find this book useful as a classroom text. "There is no other book in the field that covers the scope of material that is inside this comprehensive text. The work might be best summed up as being a clinical neuropsychology postdoctoral residency in a book, with the most up to date information available, so that it is also an indispensible book for practicing neuropsychologists in addition to students and residents...There is really no book like this available today. It skillfully brings together the most important foundationsof clinical neuropsychology with the 'nuts and bolts' of every facet of assessment. It also reminds the more weathered neuropsychologists among us of the essential value of neuropsychological assessment...the impact of the disease on the patient’s cognitive functioning and behavior may only be objectively quantified through a neuropsychological assessment." Arch Clin Neuropsychol (2011) first published online June 13, 2011 Read the full review acn.oxfordjournals.org



Disorders of Synaptic Plasticity and Schizophrenia

Disorders of Synaptic Plasticity and Schizophrenia Author
ISBN-10 9780080548623
Release 2004-05-10
Pages 542
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Schizophrenia is a severe brain disorder that affects 1% of the population. Its cause is due to the interaction of a number of abnormal genes with environmental factors. This book summarizes new advances schizophrenia research that focus on the field of neural and synaptic plasticity. Synapses in the brain in schizophrenia show a wide range of disorders, both structural and functional. This volume covers the most active and promising of these new developments, and opens up new avenues for the treatment of schizophrenia. * Addresses new areas of research in neurotransmitters, receptors, vitamin transport, metabolism, and signaling. * Reviews the growing field of synaptic plasticity research * Provides links with other diseases of the Central Nervous System (CNS)



Cognitive Neuroscience The Biology of the Mind

Cognitive Neuroscience  The Biology of the Mind Author Gazzaniga, Michael
ISBN-10 9780393922288
Release 2013-10-01
Pages 752
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The first textbook for the course, and still the market leader, Cognitive Neuroscience has been thoroughly refreshed, rethought, and reorganized to enhance students ' and instructors ' experience. A stunning, all new art program conveys data and concepts clearly, and new chapter-opening Anatomical Orientation figures help students get their bearings. The table of contents and the chapters themselves have been reorganized to improve the logical flow of the narrative, and the world renowned author team has kept the book fully up to date on the latest research in this fast moving field.



The Tell Tale Brain A Neuroscientist s Quest for What Makes Us Human

The Tell Tale Brain  A Neuroscientist s Quest for What Makes Us Human Author V. S. Ramachandran
ISBN-10 9780393340624
Release 2012-01-23
Pages 384
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Ramachandran--the "Marco Polo of neuroscience"--reveals what baffling and extreme case studies can teach us about normal brain function and how it evolved. Among the topics he discusses are synesthesia as a window to creativity and autism as a springboard to understanding self-awareness.



Anatomy of Neuropsychiatry

Anatomy of Neuropsychiatry Author Lennart Heimer
ISBN-10 0080555128
Release 2007-11-29
Pages 200
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Anatomy of Neuropsychiatry presents the anatomical systems that take part in the scientific and clinical study of emotional functions and neuropsychiatric disorders. It discusses the limbic system—the cortical and subcortical structures in the human brain involved in emotion, motivation, and emotional association with memory—at length and how this is no longer a useful guide to the study of psychiatric disorders. The book provides an understanding of brain anatomy, with an emphasis on the new anatomical framework which has emerged during the last quarter century. The goal is to help the reader develop an understanding of the gross anatomical organization of the human forebrain. A re-evaluation of brain anatomy, with an emphasis on the new anatomical framework which has emerged during the last quarter century A compellingly expanded conceptualization of Broca's famous limbic lobe Clinical and basic science boxes highlighting specific concepts, structures, or neuronal circuits from a clinical perspective



The Female Brain

The Female Brain Author Louann Brizendine, M.D.
ISBN-10 0767928415
Release 2007-08-07
Pages 304
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Since Dr. Brizendine wrote The Female Brain ten years ago, the response has been overwhelming. This New York Times bestseller has been translated into more than thirty languages, has sold nearly a million copies between editions, and has most recently inspired a romantic comedy starring Whitney Cummings and Sofia Vergara. And its profound scientific understanding of the nature and experience of the female brain continues to guide women as they pass through life stages, to help men better understand the girls and women in their lives, and to illuminate the delicate emotional machinery of a love relationship. Every brain begins as a female brain. It only becomes male eight weeks after conception, when excess testosterone shrinks the communications center, reduces the hearing cortex, and makes the part of the brain that processes sex twice as large. Louann Brizendine, M.D. is a pioneering neuropsychiatrist who brings together the latest findings to show how the unique structure of the female brain determines how women think, what they value, how they communicate, and whom they’ll love. Brizendine reveals the neurological explanations behind why • A woman remembers fights that a man insists never happened • A teen girl is so obsessed with her looks and talking on the phone • Thoughts about sex enter a woman’s brain once every couple of days but enter a man’s brain about once every minute • A woman knows what people are feeling, while a man can’t spot an emotion unless somebody cries or threatens bodily harm • A woman over 50 is more likely to initiate divorce than a man Women will come away from this book knowing that they have a lean, mean communicating machine. Men will develop a serious case of brain envy.



Neuroanatomy

Neuroanatomy Author Adam Fisch
ISBN-10 9780199845798
Release 2012-03-06
Pages 496
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Neuroanatomy: Draw It to Know It, Second Edition teaches neuroanatomy in a purely kinesthetic way. In using this book, the reader draws each neuroanatomical pathway and structure, and in the process, creates memorable and reproducible schematics for the various learning points in Neuroanatomy in a hands-on, enjoyable and highly effective manner. In addition to this unique method, Neuroanatomy: Draw it to Know It also provides a remarkable repository of reference materials, including numerous anatomic and radiographic brain images, muscle-testing photographs, and illustrations from many other classic texts, which enhance the learning experience.



The Mouse Nervous System

The Mouse Nervous System Author Charles Watson
ISBN-10 9780123694973
Release 2012
Pages 795
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The Mouse Nervous System provides a comprehensive account of the central nervous system of the mouse. The book is aimed at molecular biologists who need a book that introduces them to the anatomy of the mouse brain and spinal cord, but also takes them into the relevant details of development and organization of the area they have chosen to study. The Mouse Nervous System offers a wealth of new information for experienced anatomists who work on mice. The book serves as a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in neuroscience. * Visualization of brain white matter anatomy via 3D diffusion tensor imaging contrasts enhances relationship of anatomy to function * Systematic consideration of the anatomy and connections of all regions of brain and spinal cord by the authors of the most cited rodent brain atlases * A major section (12 chapters) on functional systems related to motor control, sensation, and behavioral and emotional states, * Full segmentation of 170120+ brain regions more clearly defines structure boundaries than previous point-and-annotate anatomical labeling, and connectivity is mapped in a way not provided by traditional atlasesA detailed analysis of gene expression during development of the forebrain by Luis Puelles, the leading researcher in this area. * Full coverage of the role of gene expression during development, and the new field of genetic neuroantomy using site-specific recombinases * Examples of the use of mouse models in the study of neurological illness



The Prefrontal Cortex

The Prefrontal Cortex Author Joaquin Fuster
ISBN-10 9780124080607
Release 2015-05-22
Pages 460
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The Prefrontal Cortex, Fifth Edition, provides users with a thoroughly updated version of this comprehensive work that has historically served as the classic reference on this part of the brain. The book offers a unifying, interdisciplinary perspective that is lacking in other volumes written about the frontal lobes, and is, once again, written by the award-winning author who discovered "memory cells," the physiological substrate of working memory. The fifth edition constitutes a comprehensive update, including all the major advances made on the physiology and cognitive neuroscience of the region since publication in 2008. All chapters have been fully revised, and the overview of prefrontal functions now interprets experimental data within the theoretical framework of the new paradigm of cortical structure and dynamics (the Cognit Paradigm), addressing the accompanying social, economic, and cultural implications. Provides a distinctly interdisciplinary view of the prefrontal cortex, covering all major methodologies, from comparative anatomy to modern imaging Unique analysis and synthesis of a large body of basic and clinical data on the subject (more than 2000 references) Written by an award-winning author who discovered "memory cells," the physiological substrate of working memory Synthesizes evidence that the prefrontal cortex constitutes a complex pre-adaptive system Incorporates emerging study of the role of the frontal lobes in social, economic, and cultural adaptation



Internet Addiction

Internet Addiction Author Christian Montag
ISBN-10 9783319462769
Release 2017-03-27
Pages 392
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The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addiction. Moreover, in this second edition of the book new content has been added. Among others, the reader will find an overview of theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, results from twin studies in the context of Internet addiction and additional insights into therapeutic approaches to Internet addiction.



Excitatory Amino Acids and Epilepsy

Excitatory Amino Acids and Epilepsy Author Robert Schwarcz
ISBN-10 9781468479713
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 735
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Human epilepsy is a major public health problem affecting approximately 2 persons per 1000. It is particularly frequent in ohildren where convul sions may lead to brain damage and subsequent seizure activity in adulthood. Temporal lobe epilepsy (synonyms include limbic epilepsy. psychomotor epilepsy and complex partial epilepsy) is the most devastating form of epilepsy in the adult population since: a) it is often extremely resistant to currently available anticonvulsant drugs (i.e •• it is more resistant than tonico-clonic or grand mal seizures) and b) it includes loss of consciousness. thereby limiting performance of many normal functions and leaving the individual susceptible to bodily injury. It is also associated with nerve cell loss. in particular in the hippocampus and other structures of the temporal lobes. In order to promote an appropriate therapy it is essential to understand the etiology of seizures and its relationship to brain damage. Basic research on epilepsy also provides a very useful vehicle to learn about the way the brain functions under normal conditions. For instance. much of our present understanding of the mechanisms of action of GABA and benzo diazepines. control of neuronal activity. etc. has been derived from such stUdies.