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The Codes of the Constitution

The Codes of the Constitution Author Andrew Blick
ISBN-10 9781509904105
Release 2016-09-22
Pages 272
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This book describes an astounding feat of constitutional writing and publication. For a number of decades, officials working across different branches of the United Kingdom (UK) constitution have been engaged in a series of separate projects. Taken in their totality, they amount to a vast enterprise. Yet, until now, no-one has fully recognised or critically analysed what has taken place. There has been a proliferation in the UK of publicly available codes, normally lacking a basis in statute, providing official accounts of a variety of different features of UK constitutional rules and principles. They cover institutions ranging from the Cabinet to the Civil Service to the judiciary, and relationships between entities such as central government and the devolved executives; and between the UK executive and the Westminster Parliament. Among them are prominent texts such as the Ministerial Code, the Cabinet Manual, the Guide to Judicial Conduct and the devolution Memorandum of Understanding Â? as well as more obscure documents that nonetheless contain important stipulations regarding the operation of the system. Similar developments have taken place in countries including Australia, Canada and New Zealand. The author explores the history of this phenomenon in the UK, how it functions today here and elsewhere in the Commonwealth, and its implications for the UK constitution.



Israeli Constitutional Law in the Making

Israeli Constitutional Law in the Making Author Gideon Sapir
ISBN-10 9781782251859
Release 2014-07-18
Pages 578
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In the domain of comparative constitutionalism, Israeli constitutional law is a fascinating case study constituted of many dilemmas. It is moving from the old British tradition of an unwritten constitution and no judicial review of legislation to fully-fledged constitutionalism endorsing judicial review and based on the text of a series of basic laws. At the same time, it is struggling with major questions of identity, in the context of Israel's constitutional vision of 'a Jewish and Democratic' state. Israeli Constitutional Law in the Making offers a comprehensive study of Israeli constitutional law in a systematic manner that moves from constitution-making to specific areas of contestation including state/religion relations, national security, social rights, as well as structural questions of judicial review. It features contributions by leading scholars of Israeli constitutional law, with comparative comments by leading scholars of constitutional law from Europe and the United States.



Parliamentary Sovereignty in the UK Constitution

Parliamentary Sovereignty in the UK Constitution Author Michael Gordon
ISBN-10 9781782255802
Release 2015-04-30
Pages 262
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The status of the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty in the contemporary UK Constitution is much contested. Changes in the architecture of the UK Constitution, diminishing academic reverence for the doctrine, and a more expansive vision of the judicial role, all present challenges to the relevance, coherence and desirability of this constitutional fundamental. At a time when the future of the sovereignty of Parliament may look less than assured, this book develops an account of the continuing significance of the doctrine. It argues that a rejuvenation of the manner and form theory is required to understand the present status of parliamentary sovereignty. Addressing the critical challenges to the doctrine, it contends that this conception of legally unlimited legislative power provides the best explanation of contemporary developments in UK constitutional practice, while also possessing a normative appeal that has previously been unrecognised. This modern shift to the manner and form theory is located in an account of the democratic virtue of parliamentary sovereignty, with the book seeking to demonstrate the potential that exists for Parliament Â? through legislating about the legislative process Â? to revitalise the UK's political constitution.



Beyond Magna Carta

Beyond Magna Carta Author Andrew Blick
ISBN-10 9781849469647
Release 2015-04-30
Pages 314
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The 800th anniversary of Magna Carta falls in June 2015. In this work Dr Blick argues that this event should be the occasion for a reassessment of the past, present and future of the UK constitution. He draws on his experience as research fellow to the first ever parliamentary inquiry into the possibility of a written constitution for the UK. Dr Blick considers a series of English and UK historical texts from Anglo-Saxon times onwards, among which Magna Carta is the most prominent, which sought to set out arrangements for the governance of England and later the UK as a whole. He argues that they comprise a powerful tradition of written constitutional documents, and stresses the importance of the European dimension to their introduction and content. The author then considers the present nature of the UK constitution, describing the period of immense flux through which it has passed in recent decades, and the implications of this phase of change. Dr Blick identifies a need for a full written constitution for the UK as the next appropriate step. Finally, he discusses the democratic processes suitable to devising such a text, and what its contents might be. 'With this book Andrew Blick has made a major contribution to our understanding of how our system of government has worked in the past, how it is working ? or not working ? now, and what it could be in the future. Combing the centuries, he challenges many misconceptions and makes a powerful case for a written constitution. This volume is absolutely essential to anyone who wants to appreciate the real meaning of Magna Carta and why we should celebrate it.' Graham Allen MP, Chair, House of Commons Political and Constitutional Reform Committee 'Beyond Magna Carta brings together the utility of a road map with the fascination of a changing cartography of political thought ? all part of the constitutional development of these islands from the Great Charter of 1215 to the confusing aftermath of the Scottish Referendum of 2014. It is a superb work of explanation capped by intriguing suggestions of future possibilities.' Lord Hennessy of Nympsfield, FBA, Attlee Professor of Contemporary British History, Queen Mary, University of London.



Comparative Constitutional Theory

Comparative Constitutional Theory Author Gary Jacobsohn
ISBN-10 9781784719135
Release 2018
Pages 552
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The need for innovative thinking about alternative constitutional experiences is evident, and readers of Comparative Constitutional Theory will find in its pages a compendium of original, theory-driven essays. The authors use a variety of theoretical perspectives to explore the diversity of global constitutional experience in a post-1989 world prominently marked by momentous transitions from authoritarianism to democracy, by multiple constitutional revolutions and devolutions, by the increased penetration of international law into national jurisdictions, and by the enhancement of supra-national institutions of governance.



Parliament and the Law

Parliament and the Law Author Alexander Horne
ISBN-10 9781782252597
Release 2014-07-18
Pages 404
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Parliament and the Law is an edited collection of essays, sponsored by the Study of Parliament Group and written by leading constitutional lawyers, practitioners and parliamentary officials, with a Foreword by Sir Ross Cranston (a Justice of the High Court and former Solicitor-General). The book provides a wide-ranging overview of the ways in which the law applies to Parliament and considers how recent changes to our constitutional arrangements (in particular the Human Rights Act, the establishment of a Supreme Court and increasing devolution) have impacted on Parliament as an institution. It includes discussion of a number of topical issues, including: the operation of parliamentary privilege in civil and criminal law (examining the recent examples of 'super injunctions' and Members' expenses); the powers of Parliament's Select Committees; the work of Parliament's 'watchdog' Committees: the Joint Committee on Human Rights and the House of Lords Constitution Committee. It reflects on the effect of Freedom of Information on Parliament. It also discusses arguments that have been raised in favour of a new Bill of Rights for the United Kingdom and arguments for and against the continuation of the doctrine of Parliamentary sovereignty. The book is aimed at legal academics, practitioners, political scientists, parliamentarians and parliamentary officials and others interested in the relationships between Parliament and the law. "This book, published under the auspices of the Study of Parliament Group, is very much to be welcomed. The editors are to be applauded for their initiative [and] the various authors have a profound knowledge of Parliament's operation. The essays are a mine of information. For that reason the chapters will prove a springboard for further analysis. But the book is more than that because it raises some profound issues about Parliament's future and its relationship with other institutions of the state. Those in Parliament, whether as Members or officials, and those interested in Parliament, such as academics, public officials (including, dare I say judges), and many others besides, will all learn from it." From the Foreword by Sir Ross Cranston FBA



Great Cases in Constitutional Law

Great Cases in Constitutional Law Author Robert P. George
ISBN-10 9781400882724
Release 2016-03-04
Pages 216
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Slavery, segregation, abortion, workers' rights, the power of the courts. These issues have been at the heart of the greatest constitutional controversies in American history. And in this concise and thought-provoking volume, some of today's most distinguished legal scholars and commentators explain for a general audience how five landmark Supreme Court cases centered on those controversies shaped the country's destiny and continue to affect us even now. The book is a profound exploration of the Supreme Court's importance to America's social and political life. It is also, as many of the contributors show, an intriguing reflection of what some have seen as an important trend in legal scholarship away from an uncritical belief in the essentially benign nature of judicial power. Robert George opens with an illuminating survey of the themes that unite and divide the five cases. Other contributors then examine each case in detail through a lively commentary-and-response format. Mark Tushnet and Jeremy Waldron exchange views on Marbury v. Madison, the pivotal 1803 case that established the power of the courts to invalidate legislation. Cass Sunstein and James McPherson discuss Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), the notorious case that confirmed the rights of slaveowners, declared that black people could not be American citizens, and is often seen as a cause of the Civil War. Hadley Arkes and Donald Drakeman explore the legacy of Lochner v. New York (1905), a case that ushered in decades of judicial hostility to social welfare laws. Earl Maltz and Walter Murphy assess Brown v. Topeka Board of Education (1954), the famous case that ended racial segregation in public schools. Finally, Jean Bethke Elshtain and George Will tackle Roe v. Wade (1973), still a flashpoint a quarter of a century later in the debate over abortion. While some of the contributors show sympathy for strong judicial interventions on social issues, many across the ideological spectrum are sharply critical of judicial activism. A compelling introduction to the greatest cases in U.S. constitutional law, this is also an enlightening glimpse of the state of the art in American legal scholarship.



Routledge Handbook of Constitutional Law

Routledge Handbook of Constitutional Law Author Mark Tushnet
ISBN-10 9781135100186
Release 2013-06-26
Pages 528
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The Routledge Handbook of Constitutional Law is an advanced level reference work which surveys the current state of constitutional law. Featuring new, specially commissioned papers by a range of leading scholars from around the world, it offers a comprehensive overview of the field as well as identifying promising avenues for future research. The book presents the key issues in constitutional law thematically allowing for a truly comparative approach to the subject. It also pays particular attention to constitutional design, identifying and evaluating various solutions to the challenges involved in constitutional architecture. The book is split into four parts for ease of reference: Part One: General issues "sets issues of constitutional law firmly in context including topics such as the making of constitutions, the impact of religion and culture on constitutions, and the relationship between international law and domestic constitutions. Part Two: Structures presents different approaches in regard to institutions or state organization and structural concepts such as emergency powers and electoral systems Part Three: Rights covers the key rights often enshrined in constitutions Part Four: New Challenges - explores issues of importance such as migration and refugees, sovereignty under pressure from globalization, Supranational Organizations and their role in creating post-conflict constitutions, and new technological challenges. Providing up-to-date and authoritative articles covering all the key aspects of constitutional law, this reference work is essential reading for advanced students, scholars and practitioners in the field.



The National Courts Mandate in the European Constitution

The National Courts  Mandate in the European Constitution Author Monica Claes
ISBN-10 9781847312181
Release 2006-03-31
Pages 818
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The reform of the European Constitution continues to dominate news headlines and has provoked a massive debate, unprecedented in the history of EU law. Against this backdrop Monica Claes' book offers a "bottom up" view of how the Constitution might work, taking the viewpoint of the national courts as her starting point, and at the same time returning to fundamental principles in order to interrogate the myths of Community law. Adopting a broad, comparative approach, she analyses the basic doctrines of Community law from both national constitutional perspectives as well as the more usual European perspective. It is only by combining the perspectives of the EU and national constitutions, she argues, that a complete picture can be obtained, and a solid theoretical base (constitutional pluralism) developed. Her comparative analysis encompasses the law in France, Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany, Ireland, Italy and the United Kingdom and in the course of her inquiry discusses a wide variety of prominent problems. The book is structured around three main themes, coinciding with three periods in the development of the judicial dialogue between the ECJ and the national courts. The first focuses on the ordinary non-constitutional national courts and how they have successfully adapted to the mandates developed by the ECJ in Simmenthal and Francovich. The second examines the constitutional and other review courts and discusses the gradual transformation of the ECJ into a constitutional court, and its relationship to the national constitutional courts. The contrast is marked; these courts are not specifically empowered by the case law of the ECJ and have reacted quite differently to the message from Luxembourg, leaving them apparently on collision course with the ECJ in the areas of judicial Kompetenz Kompetenz and fundamental rights. The third theme reprises the first two and places them in the context of the current debate on the Constitution for Europe and the Convention, taking the perspective of the national courts as the starting point for a wide-ranging examination of EU's constitutional fundamentals. In so doing it argues that the new Constitution must accommodate the national perspective if it is to prove effective.



Constitutionalism and Legal Change in Myanmar

Constitutionalism and Legal Change in Myanmar Author Andrew Harding
ISBN-10 9781509902101
Release 2017-01-26
Pages 224
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Myanmar's Constitution of 2008 was the 'road map' for the reform process that began in 2011. Despite extensive criticism of this Constitution for its emphasis on the role of the military, much progress has been made towards constitutional government and law reform. With the election of the opposition NLD to government in the general election of November 2015 and the presidential electoral college election of March 2016,now is the time to consider the Constitution, and prospects and needs for constitutional change as Myanmar moves towards democracy and the rule of law. Much has been made of the Constitution's rigidity, which is seen as an obstacle to reform and inconsistent with embracing the rule of law, human rights and multi-party democracy, especially with a rapidly transforming state and society. Nonetheless, the Constitution is also seen as having potential to be a very positive force for reform. Many issues arise now for constitutionalism and constitutional change: presidency; federalism and territorial governance; the status of minorities and freedom of religion; civil liberties in what is described as a 'discipline-flourishing democracy'; the courts, justice and the rule of law; the electoral system; and many more. This book is an attempt to gauge the extent and potential for the entrenchment of constitutionalism in Myanmar in a rapidly changing environment.



Bound by Our Constitution

Bound by Our Constitution Author Vivien Hart
ISBN-10 1400821568
Release 1994-08-08
Pages 272
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What difference does a written constitution make to public policy? How have women workers fared in a nation bound by constitutional principles, compared with those not covered by formal, written guarantees of fair procedure or equitable outcome? To investigate these questions, Vivien Hart traces the evolution of minimum wage policies in the United States and Britain from their common origins in women's politics around 1900 to their divergent outcomes in our day. She argues, contrary to common wisdom, that the advantage has been with the American constitutional system rather than the British. Basing her analysis on primary research, Hart reconstructs legal strategies and policy decisions that revolved around the recognition of women as workers and the public definition of gender roles. Contrasting seismic shifts and expansion in American minimum wage policy with indifference and eventual abolition in Britain, she challenges preconceptions about the constraints of American constitutionalism versus British flexibility. Though constitutional requirements did block and frustrate women's attempts to gain fair wages, they also, as Hart demonstrates, created a terrain in the United States for principled debate about women, work, and the state--and a momentum for public policy--unparalleled in Britain. Hart's book should be of interest to policy, labor, women's, and legal historians, to political scientists, and to students of gender issues, law, and social policy.



The Constitution of the Republic of Austria

The Constitution of the Republic of Austria Author Manfred Stelzer
ISBN-10 9781847316493
Release 2011-04-28
Pages 294
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The Constitution of the Republic of Austria originated in 1920. From the beginning it represented a compromise between deeply opposed political parties with widely divergent moral and political principles. The Constitution deliberately lacked substantive content, was formal in character, and was concerned only with the framework for the everyday political process. Constitutional amendments were, and remain, frequent events. As a result case law interpreting the constitution tended to be conservative in outlook; controversial cases were considered a matter for constitutional amendment rather than constitutional interpretation. Only comparatively recently, in the 1980s, has the Constitutional Court adopted a more expansive constitutional jurisprudence, especially in the field of fundamental rights. While this was to some extent an inevitable result of the influence of the ECtHR, it meant for instance that the principle of proportionality became enshrined in Austrian fundamental rights theory. The Constitutional Court even saw fit to set limits to Parliament's power to amend the Constitution. Becoming a member of the EU in 1995 presented Austria with new challenges, leading inevitably to the creation of a Constitutional Convention and, eventually, major amendments to the Constitution in 2008. This book shows how the Austrian Constitution has been shaped and interpreted by the fundamental events in Austria's modern history. At the same time it emphasises the way in which the Constitution establishes a parliamentary system, with additional presidential features, limited, in turn, by Austria's federal structure and the parliaments of nine states.



The Constitution of Romania

The Constitution of Romania Author Bianca Selejan-Gutan
ISBN-10 9781782259589
Release 2016-04-21
Pages 296
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In December 1989, Romania became the last Eastern European communist country to break with its communist dictatorship, the most powerful in the region at the time. It has struggled ever since to overcome the transition to democracy and to become a 'full-time' member of the Western democratic community of states. This book provides a contextual analysis of the Romanian constitutional system, with references to the country's troubled constitutional history and to the way in which legal transplantation has been used. The Constitution's grey areas, as well as the gap between the written constitution and the living one, will also be explained through the prism of recent events that cast a negative shadow upon the democratic nature of the Romanian constitutional system. The first chapters present a brief historical overview and an introduction to Romanian constitutional culture, as well as to the principles and general features of the 1991 Constitution. The chapters which follow explain the functioning of the institutions and their interrelations-Parliament, the President, the Government and the courts. The Constitutional Court has a special place in the book, as do local government and the protection of fundamental rights. The last chapter refers to the mechanisms and challenges of constitutional change and development.



The Constitution of Pakistan

The Constitution of Pakistan Author Sadaf Aziz
ISBN-10 9781509919123
Release 2018-01-11
Pages 240
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This volume provides a contextual account of Pakistan's constitutional laws and history. It aims to describe the formal structure of government in reference to origins that are traced to the administrative centralisation and legal innovations of colonial rule. It also situates the tide of Muslim nationalism that gave rise to the nation of Pakistan within a terrain of nascent constitutionalism and its associated promises of representation. The post-colonial history of the Pakistani state is charted by reference to succeeding constitutions and the distribution of powers between the major branches of government that they augured. Where conventional histories often suggest that constitutionalism in Pakistan is to be solely understood by reference to a cycle of abidance and rupture, and in the oscillation between military and civilian rule, this volume also accounts for the many points of continuity between regime types. The contours of a broader constitutionalism come to light in the ways in which state power is wielded at different periods and in the range of contests – economic, political and cultural – through which some of this power is sought to be dispersed. Chapters on Rights, Federalism and Islam detail the contextual features of some of these contests and the normative, legal parameters through which they are provisionally settled.



Comparative Constitutional Studies

Comparative Constitutional Studies Author Günter Frankenberg
ISBN-10 9781782548980
Release 2018-03-09
Pages 360
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Comparative Constitutional Studies takes a rich area of research and teaching and makes it attractive for the classroom setting and beyond. Every constitution has an interesting story to tell, and for this book Günter Frankenberg has selected vibrant examples that encourage readers to practice realism, demonstrate critical spirit and examine the dark side of framers’ reports and normative theories.



The Constitution of Spain

The Constitution of Spain Author Victor Ferreres Comella
ISBN-10 9781782251347
Release 2013-05-13
Pages 306
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This book provides a critical introduction to the principles and institutions that make up the Spanish Constitution, which was enacted in 1978. It first explains the process of transition from Franco's dictatorship to democracy, in order to understand the historical circumstances under which the Constitution was framed. After offering a theory to justify the authority of the Constitution over ordinary laws, the book proceeds to explain the basic principles of the Spanish political regime, as well as the structure of its complex legal system. Later chapters focus on various institutions, such as the Crown, Parliament and the Government. A specific chapter is devoted to the territorial distribution of power between the State, the regions and local government. The last two chapters deal with the constitutional role of courts, and the protection of fundamental rights. The book includes some reflections on the challenges that lie ahead and the constitutional reforms that may need to be considered in the future.



The Constitution of Finland

The Constitution of Finland Author Jaakko Husa
ISBN-10 1841138541
Release 2011
Pages 254
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This book deals with the living Constitution of Finland, with an emphasis on constitutional history, culture, and practice. 'Culture' here refers to the cognitive long-term social or mental structure which makes it possible for politicians, civil servants, judges and lawyers to grasp the constitutional environment in which they exist. Finland is a small modern, democratic Nordic country with a politically stable welfare system and a constitutional history dating back to the 1700's which contains remnants of Swedish rule, Russian rule, and the period of independence since 1917. It also contains several inner tensions: parliamentarism versus presidentialism, a high level of constitutionalism versus a virtual lack of constitutional judicial review, and a formally rigid but actually flexible constitution. The book offers a realistic but critical overview of the Finnish constitution, while also discussing fundamental questions about the very nature of constitution and constitutionalism. In addition, the constitutional effect of the EU and the European Convention on Human Rights are discussed and, where appropriate, a specific comparative dimension is added. The book is written in an uncomplicated manner and is aimed at those not familiar with the system, providing an introduction and first orientation without excessive detail. Each chapter concludes with a list of further reading and relevant websites.