Download or read online books in PDF, EPUB and Mobi Format. Click Download or Read Online button to get book now. This site is like a library, Use search box in the widget to get ebook that you want.

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses Author Edward C. Holmes
ISBN-10 9780199211128
Release 2009-06-25
Pages 254
Download Link Click Here

While the study of viral evolution has developed rapidly in the last 30 years, little attention has been directed toward linking the mechanisms of viral evolution to the epidemiological outcomes of these processes. This book intends to fill this gap by considering the patterns and processes of viral evolution at all its spatial and temporal scales.



Virus as Populations

Virus as Populations Author Esteban Domingo
ISBN-10 9780128009949
Release 2015-09-25
Pages 428
Download Link Click Here

Virus as Populations: Composition, Complexity, Dynamics, and Biological Implications explains fundamental concepts that arise from regarding viruses as complex populations when replicating in infected hosts. Fundamental phenomena in virus behavior, such as adaptation to changing environments, capacity to produce disease, probability to be transmitted or response to treatment, depend on virus population numbers and in the variations of such population numbers. Concepts such as quasispecies dynamics, mutations rates, viral fitness, the effect of bottleneck events, population numbers in virus transmission and disease emergence, new antiviral strategies such as lethal mutagenesis, and extensions of population heterogeneity to nonviral systems are included. These main concepts of the book are framed in recent observations on general virus diversity derived from metagenomic studies, and current views on the origin of viruses and the role of viruses in the evolution of the biosphere. Features current views on the key steps in the origin of life and origins of viruses Includes examples relating ancestral features of viruses with their current adaptive capacity Explains complex phenomena in an organized and coherent fashion that is easy to comprehend and enjoyable to read Considers quasispecies as a framework to understand virus adaptability and disease processes



Comparative Genomics

Comparative Genomics Author Eric Tannier
ISBN-10 9783642161810
Release 2010-10-13
Pages 303
Download Link Click Here

The complexity of genome evolution has given birth to exciting challenges for computational biologists. A various range of algorithmic, statistical, mathem- ical techniques to elucidate the histories of molecules are developed each year and many are presented at the RECOMB satellite workshop on Comparative Genomics. It is a place where scientists working on all aspects of comparative genomics can share ideas on the development of tools and their application to relevant questions. This volume contains the papers presented at RECOMB-CG 2010, held on October 9–11 in Ottawa. The ?eld is still ?ourishing as seen from the papers presented this year: many developments enrich the combinatorics of genome rearrangements, while gene order phylogenies are becoming more and more - curate, thanks to a mixing of combinatorial and statistical principles, associated with rapid and thoughtful heuristics. Several papers tend to re?ne the models of genome evolution, and more and more genomic events can be modeled, from single nucleotide substitutions in whole genome alignments to large structural mutations or horizontal gene transfers.



Viral Infections of Humans

Viral Infections of Humans Author Richard A. Kaslow
ISBN-10 9781489974488
Release 2014-09-27
Pages 1215
Download Link Click Here

Striking changes have occurred in the world since the publication of the last edition of Viral Infections of Humans. The global population is rapidly approaching 8 billion; climate change is leading to the introduction of new hosts, vectors and virus diseases heretofore never seen in many parts of the world; technological advances have revolutionized the ability to recognize and characterize viruses new and old; vaccines are altering the epidemiological landscape of the diseases they target, in some cases raising the hope of their eradication and remarkably powerful computational tools are enabling not only detection of outbreaks of disease much sooner than in the past but also, through complex mathematical modeling, more accurate prediction of their potential impact. The new Fifth Edition of Viral Infections of Humans captures the both the excitement and frustration of the dynamic struggle between humankind and the viruses that continue to cause immense suffering. It presents the latest concepts, methods and technologies in epidemiology, detection, investigation, modeling and intervention. Updated and entirely new chapters by dozens of experts across the field provide analytic summaries of current knowledge of viruses and prions causing acute syndromes, chronic illnesses and/or malignancies. In sum, this ambitiously expanded volume offers a uniquely comprehensive perspective on viruses in humans, from agents of classic diseases (e.g., hepatitis, measles, polio, rabies and yellow fever), to those with greatest pandemic impact (e.g., influenza and human immunodeficiency virus), to those discovered relatively recently (e.g., henipavirus, metapneumovirus and norovirus). The new Fifth Edition of Viral Infections of Humans is an invaluable reference for students, fellows and established professionals in the fields of microbiology, public health and infectious disease epidemiology, medicine and health policy.



Ecological Speciation

Ecological Speciation Author Patrik Nosil
ISBN-10 9780199587117
Release 2012-03-15
Pages 280
Download Link Click Here

The formation of new species ('speciation') creates new biological diversity. This book addresses the role of ecological differences between populations in driving speciation. It reviews this process of 'ecological speciation' from ecological, geographic, and genetic perspectives.



The Darwinian Tourist

The Darwinian Tourist Author Christopher Wills
ISBN-10 9780191625039
Release 2010-10-28
Pages 368
Download Link Click Here

In this magnificently illustrated book, Christopher Wills takes us on a series of adventures. From the underwater life of Indonesia's Lambeh Strait to a little valley in northern Israel, to an earthquake in the coral reef off the island of Yap and the dry valleys of western Mongolia, Wills demonstrates how ecology and evolution have interacted to yield the world we live in. Each chapter features a different location and brings out a different and important message. With the author's own stunning photographs of the wildlife he discovered on his travels, he draws out the evolutionary stories behind the wildlife and shows how our understanding of the living world can be deepened by a Darwinian perspective. Wills demonstrates how looking at the world with evolutionary eyes leaves us with a renewed sense of wonder about life's astounding present-day diversity, along with an appreciation of our evolutionary history.



Emerging Infectious Diseases

Emerging Infectious Diseases Author
ISBN-10 UIUC:30112108355659
Release 2011-10
Pages
Download Link Click Here

Emerging Infectious Diseases has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Emerging Infectious Diseases also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Emerging Infectious Diseases book for free.



Biological Invasions Theory and Practice

Biological Invasions  Theory and Practice Author Nanako Shigesada
ISBN-10 9780191589829
Release 1997-02-06
Pages 218
Download Link Click Here

This book deals with the ecological effect a species can have when it moves into an environment that it has not previously occupied (commonly referred to as an 'Invasion'). It is unique in presenting a clear and accessible introduction to a highly complex area - the modelling of biological invasions. The book presents the latest theories and models developed from studies into this crucial area. It includes data and examples from biological case studies showing how the models can be applied to the study of invasions, whether dealing with AIDS, the European rabbit, or prickly pear cactuses. - ;In nature, all organisms migrate or disperse to some extent, either by walking, swimming, flying, or being transported by wind or water. When a species succeeds in colonising an area that it has not previously inhabited, this is referred to as an `invasion'. Humans can precipitate biological invasions often spreading disease or pests by their travels around the world. Using the large amount of data that has been collected from studies worldwide, ranging from pest control to epidemiology, it has been possible to construct mathematical models that can predict which species will become an invader, what kind of habitat is susceptible to invasion by a particular species, and how fast an invasion will spread if it occurs. This book presents a clear and accessible introduction to this highly complex area. Included are data and examples from biological case studies showing how these models can be applied to the study of invasions, whether dealing with AIDS, the European rabbit, or prickly pear cactuses. -



Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

Developmental Plasticity and Evolution Author Mary Jane West-Eberhard
ISBN-10 0198028563
Release 2003-03-13
Pages 916
Download Link Click Here

The first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behavior, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes," but also behavioral development and physiological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes--modular organization and plasticity--facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behavior, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and teachers of general biology.



The Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Host Parasitoid Interactions

The Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Host Parasitoid Interactions Author Michael Hassell
ISBN-10 0191588407
Release 2000-06-08
Pages 208
Download Link Click Here

This book examines our current understanding of the population dynamics of one kind of interaction - that between insect parasitoids and their hosts. Parasitoids are amongst the most abundant of all animals, and make up about 10% or more of metazoan species. Almost no insect species escape their attack. Host-parasitoid interactions were first modelled over fifty years ago, but for many years there was little good empirical information on the important factors that affect host and parasitoid populations. The models were very simple, and their predictions rather divorced from the complexity of what was visible in the field. Now, better data is available on many components of host-parasitoid systems, from field observations and laboratory and field experiments, and this allows a much closer correspondence between models and data. In particular, the past twenty years have seen major advances in our understanding of how host-parasitoid interactions are influenced by spatial processes, by age-structure effects, and by competition from additional host and parasitoid species. The result is a body of theory that makes direct contact with real systems in the field, and provides us with a detailed understanding of what underpins a whole area of population dynamics. In this book, Michael P Hassell pulls the theory and field data together to present an elegant illustration of the way in which ecological studies advance.



Genetics and the Origin of Species

Genetics and the Origin of Species Author Theodosius Dobzhansky
ISBN-10 0231054750
Release 1937
Pages 364
Download Link Click Here

Featuring an introduction by Stephen Jay Gould, "Genetics and the Origin of Species" presents the first edition of Dobzhansky's groundbreaking and now classic inquiry into what has emerged as the most important single area of scientific inquiry in the twentieth century: biological theory of evolution. Genetics and the Origin of Species went through three editions (1937, 1941, and 1951) in which the importance accorded natural selection changed radically.



Assembling the Tree of Life

Assembling the Tree of Life Author Joel Cracraft
ISBN-10 0199729603
Release 2004-07-22
Pages 592
Download Link Click Here

This edited volume is provides an authoritative synthesis of knowledge about the history of life. All the major groups of organisms are treated, by the leading workers in their fields. With sections on: The Importance of Knowing the Tree of Life; The Origin and Radiation of Life on Earth; The Relationships of Green Plants; The Relationships of Fungi; and The Relationships of Animals. This book should prove indispensable for evolutionary biologists, taxonomists, ecologists interested in biodiversity, and as a baseline sourcebook for organismic biologists, botanists, and microbiologists. An essential reference in this fundamental area.



The British National Bibliography

The British National Bibliography Author Arthur James Wells
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105211722686
Release 2009
Pages
Download Link Click Here

The British National Bibliography has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from The British National Bibliography also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full The British National Bibliography book for free.



Parasite Diversity and Diversification

Parasite Diversity and Diversification Author Serge Morand
ISBN-10 9781107037656
Release 2015-02-26
Pages 488
Download Link Click Here

By joining phylogenetics and evolutionary ecology, this book explores the patterns of parasite diversity while revealing diversification processes.



Divergence with Genetic Exchange

Divergence with Genetic Exchange Author Michael L. Arnold
ISBN-10 9780191038914
Release 2015-10-22
Pages 272
Download Link Click Here

The study of genetic exchange resulting from natural hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, and viral recombination has long been marked by controversy between researchers holding different conceptual frameworks. Those subscribing to a doctrine of 'species purity' have traditionally been reluctant to recognise inferences suggesting anything other than a marginal role for non-allopatric divergence leading to gene transfer between different lineages. However, an increasing number of evolutionary biologists now accept that there is a growing body of evidence indicating the existence of non-allopatric diversification across many lineages and all domains of biological diversity. Divergence with Genetic Exchange investigates the mechanisms associated with evolutionary divergence and diversification, focussing on the role played by the exchange of genes between divergent lineages, a process recently termed 'divergence-with-gene-flow'. Although the mechanisms by which such divergent forms of life exchange genomic material may differ widely, the outcomes of interest - adaptive evolution and the formation of new hybrid lineages - do not. Successive chapters cover the history of the field, detection methodologies, outcomes, implications for conservation programs, and the effects on the human lineage associated with the process of genetic transfer between divergent lineages. This research level text is suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate level students taking related courses in departments of genetics, ecology and evolution. It will also be of relevance and use to professional evolutionary biologists and systematists seeking a comprehensive and authoritative overview of this rapidly expanding field.



Virus Dynamics Mathematical Principles of Immunology and Virology

Virus Dynamics   Mathematical Principles of Immunology and Virology Author Martin Nowak
ISBN-10 0191588512
Release 2000-11-23
Pages 250
Download Link Click Here

This groundbreaking book describes the emerging field of theoretical immunology, in particular the use of mathematical models to describe the spread of infectious diseases within patients. It reveals fascinating insights into the dynamics of viral and other infections, and the interactions between infectious agents and immune responses. Structured around the examples of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B, Nowak and May show how mathematical models can help researchers to understand the detailed dynamics of infection and the effects of antiviral therapy. Models are developed to describe the dynamics of drug resistance, immune responses, viral evolution and mutation, and to optimise the design of therapy and vaccines. - ;We know, down to the tiniest details, the molecular structure of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet despite this tremendous accomplishment, and despite other remarkable advances in our understanding of individual viruses and cells of the immune system, we still have no agreed understanding of the ultimate course and variability of the pathogenesis of AIDS. Gaps in our understanding like these impede our efforts towards developing effective therapies and preventive vaccines. Martin Nowak and Robert M May describe the emerging field of theoretical immunology in this accessible and well- written text. Using mathematical modelling techniques, the authors set out their ideas about how populations of viruses and populations of immune system cells may interact in various circumstances, and how infectious diseases spread within patients. They explain how this approach to understanding infectious diseases can reveal insights into the dynamics of viral and other infections, and the interactions between infectious agents and immune responses. The book is structured around the examples of HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis B virus, although the approaches described will be more widely applicable. The authors use mathematical tools to uncover the detailed dynamics of the infection and the effects of antiviral therapy. Models are developed to describe the emergence of drug resistance, and the dynamics of immune responses, viral evolution, and mutation. The practical implications of this work for optimisation of the design of therapy and vaccines are discussed. The book concludes with a glance towards the future of this fascinating, and potentially highly useful, field of study. - ;... an excellent introduction to a field that has the potential to advance substantially our understanding of the complex interplay between virus and host - Nature



Emerging Viruses

Emerging Viruses Author Stephen S. Morse
ISBN-10 0195355741
Release 1996-08-01
Pages 317
Download Link Click Here

New epidemics such as AIDS and "mad cow" disease have dramatized the need to explore the factors underlying rapid viral evolution and emerging viruses. This comprehensive volume is the first to describe this multifaceted new field. It places viral evolution and emergence in a historical context, describes the interaction of viruses with hosts, and details the advances in molecular biology and epidemiology that have provided the tools necessary to track developing viral epidemics and to detect new viruses far more successfully than could be done in the recent past. This unique book also lucidly details case histories and offers practical suggestions for the prevention of future epidemics. The contributors are leading authorities in their disciplines, and were selected both for their expert knowledge and for their ability to define and elucidate the fundamental issues. The book is highly accessible and has been written for a wide audience that includes virologists, public health authorities, medical anthropologists, evolutionary biologists, geneticists, infectious disease specialists, and social scientists interested in medical and health issues.