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The Holobiont Imperative

The Holobiont Imperative Author Thomas C. G. Bosch
ISBN-10 9783709118962
Release 2016-03-08
Pages 155
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This book examines how the growing knowledge of the huge range of animal-bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbioses, is fundamentally altering our understanding of animal biology. Individuals from simple invertebrates to human are not solitary, homogenous entities but consist of complex communities of many species that likely evolved during a billion years of coexistence. Defining the individual microbe-host conversations in these consortia, is a challenging but necessary step on the path to understanding the function of the associations as a whole. The hologenome theory of evolution considers the holobiont with its hologenome as a unit of selection in evolution. This new view may have profound impact on understanding a strictly microbe/symbiont-dependent life style and its evolutionary consequences. It may also affect the way how we approach complex environmental diseases from corals (coral bleaching) to human (inflammatory bowel disease etc). The book is written for scientists as well as medically interested persons in the field of immunobiology, microbiology, evolutionary biology, evolutionary medicine and corals.



Microbial Biofilms

Microbial Biofilms Author Gavin Lear
ISBN-10 9781904455967
Release 2012-01-01
Pages 228
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Biofilms are the default mode-of-life for many bacterial species. The three-dimensional structure of the biofilm provides the associated microbial communities with additional protection from predation, toxic substances, and physical perturbation. The variety of microniches provided by the biofilm also promotes a huge diversity of microbial life and metabolic potential. These complex and highly structured communities help to maintain the health of soils and waters. Current applications of biofilms include the degradation of toxic substances in soil and water, the commercial production of chemicals, and the generation of electricity. However, biofilm-based infections cause harm to millions of humans annually. In addition, biofilms can affect the quality and yield of crops and cause biofouling and microbially-induced corrosion. In this book, leading scientists provide an up-to-date review of the latest scientific research on these fascinating microbial communities and predict future trends and growth areas in biofilm-related research. Authors from around the world have contributed critical reviews on the most topical aspects of current biofilm research. The subjects covered include: quorum sensing and social interactions in microbial biofilms * biofilms in disease * plant-associated biofilms * biofilms in the soil * applications in bioremediation * biofilms in wastewater treatment * corrosion and fouling * aquatic biofilms * microbial fuel cells * catalytic biofilms. The book will be essential for everyone interested in biofilms and their applications. It is also highly recommended for environmental microbiologists, soil scientists, medical microbiologists, bioremediation experts, and microbiologists working in biocorrosion, biofouling, biodegradation, water microbiology, quorum sensing, and many other areas.



Coral Whisperers

Coral Whisperers Author Irus Braverman
ISBN-10 9780520970830
Release 2018-10-30
Pages 344
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In recent years, a catastrophic global bleaching event devastated many of the world’s precious coral reefs. Working on the front lines of ruin, today’s coral scientists are struggling to save these important coral reef ecosystems from the imminent threats of rapidly warming, acidifying, and polluted oceans. Coral Whisperers captures a critical moment in the history of coral reef science. Gleaning insights from over one hundred interviews with leading scientists and conservation managers, Irus Braverman documents a community caught in an existential crisis and alternating between despair and hope. In this important new book, corals emerge not only as signs and measures of environmental catastrophe, but also as catalysts for action.



The Hologenome Concept Human Animal and Plant Microbiota

The Hologenome Concept  Human  Animal and Plant Microbiota Author Eugene Rosenberg
ISBN-10 9783319042411
Release 2014-01-31
Pages 178
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Groundbreaking research over the last 10 years has given rise to the hologenome concept of evolution. This concept posits that the holobiont (host plus all of its associated microorganisms) and its hologenome (sum of the genetic information of the host and its symbiotic microorganisms), acting in concert, function as a unique biological entity and therefore as a level of selection in evolution. All animals and plants harbor abundant and diverse microbiota, including viruses. Often the amount of symbiotic microorganisms and their combined genetic information far exceed that of their host. The microbiota with its microbiome, together with the host genome, can be transmitted from one generation to the next and thus propagate the unique properties of the holobiont. The microbial symbionts and the host interact in a cooperative way that affects the health of the holobiont within its environment. Beneficial microbiota protects against pathogens, provides essential nutrients, catabolizes complex polysaccharides, renders harmful chemicals inert, and contributes to the performance of the immune system. In humans and animals, the microbiota also plays a role in behavior. The sum of these cooperative interactions characterizes the holobiont as a unique biological entity. Genetic variation in the hologenome can be brought about by changes in either the host genome or the microbial population genomes (microbiome). Evolution by cooperation can occur by amplifying existing microbes, gaining novel microbiota and by acquiring microbial and viral genes. Under environmental stress, the microbiome can change more rapidly and in response to more processes than the host organism alone and thus influences the evolution of the holobiont. Prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and phage therapy are discussed as applied aspects of the hologenome concept.



Cosmopolitan Animals

Cosmopolitan Animals Author Kaori Nagai
ISBN-10 9781137376282
Release 2015-08-25
Pages 253
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Cosmopolitan Animals asks what new possibilities and permutations of cosmopolitanism can emerge by taking seriously our sharing and 'becoming-with' animals. It calls for a fresh awareness that animals are important players in cosmopolitics, and that worldliness is far from being a human monopoly.



The Evolutionary Strategies that Shape Ecosystems

The Evolutionary Strategies that Shape Ecosystems Author J. Philip Grime
ISBN-10 9781118223277
Release 2012-03-26
Pages 264
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In 1837 a young Charles Darwin took his notebook, wrote "I think" and then sketched a rudimentary, stick-like tree. Each branch of Darwin's tree of life told a story of survival and adaptation – adaptation of animals and plants not just to the environment but also to life with other living things. However, more than 150 years since Darwin published his singular idea of natural selection, the science of ecology has yet to account for how contrasting evolutionary outcomes affect the ability of organisms to coexist in communities and to regulate ecosystem functioning. In this book Philip Grime and Simon Pierce explain how evidence from across the world is revealing that, beneath the wealth of apparently limitless and bewildering variation in detailed structure and functioning, the essential biology of all organisms is subject to the same set of basic interacting constraints on life-history and physiology. The inescapable resulting predicament during the evolution of every species is that, according to habitat, each must adopt a predictable compromise with regard to how they use the resources at their disposal in order to survive. The compromise involves the investment of resources in either the effort to acquire more resources, the tolerance of factors that reduce metabolic performance, or reproduction. This three-way trade-off is the irreducible core of the universal adaptive strategy theory which Grime and Pierce use to investigate how two environmental filters selecting, respectively, for convergence and divergence in organism function determine the identity of organisms in communities, and ultimately how different evolutionary strategies affect the functioning of ecosystems. This book reflects an historic phase in which evolutionary processes are finally moving centre stage in the effort to unify ecological theory, and animal, plant and microbial ecology have begun to find a common theoretical framework. Visit www.wiley.com/go/grime/evolutionarystrategies to access the artwork from the book.



The Cnidaria Past Present and Future

The Cnidaria  Past  Present and Future Author Stefano Goffredo
ISBN-10 9783319313054
Release 2016-09-07
Pages 855
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This volume presents a broad panorama of the current status of research of invertebrate animals considered belonging to the phylum Cnidaria, such as hydra, jellyfish, sea anemone, and coral. In this book the Cnidarians are traced from the Earth’s primordial oceans, to their response to the warming and acidifying oceans. Due to the role of corals in the carbon and calcium cycles, various aspects of cnidarian calcification are discussed. The relation of the Cnidaria with Mankind is approached, in accordance with the Editors’ philosophy of bridging the artificial schism between science, arts and Humanities. Cnidarians' encounters with humans result in a broad spectrum of medical emergencies that are reviewed. The final section of the volume is devoted to the role of Hydra and Medusa in mythology and art.



Probiotics and Prebiotics in Animal Health and Food Safety

Probiotics and Prebiotics in Animal Health and Food Safety Author Diana Di Gioia
ISBN-10 9783319719504
Release 2018-02-27
Pages 273
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This book discusses the role of probiotics and prebiotics in maintaining the health status of a broad range of animal groups used for food production. It also highlights the use of beneficial microorganisms as protective agents in animal derived foods. The book provides essential information on the characterization and definition of probiotics on the basis of recently released guidelines and reflecting the latest trends in bacterial taxonomy. Last but not least, it discusses the concept of “dead” probiotics and their benefits to animal health in detail. The book will benefit all professors, students, researchers and practitioners in academia and industry whose work involves biotechnology, veterinary sciences or food production.



Ticks of Europe and North Africa

Ticks of Europe and North Africa Author Agustín Estrada-Peña
ISBN-10 9783319637600
Release 2018-03-15
Pages 404
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This book includes descriptive keys for identifying every stage of all the species of ticks reported in Europe and northern Africa. It includes descriptive texts on the ecology and prominent features of each species, together with ink illustrations and distribution maps of more than 60 species of hard and soft ticks. The text for each species was prepared by specialists, the illustrations were made especially for this book and the maps were compiled on the basis of more than 40 years of records. This book is the first to offer keys for more than 60 species of ticks (both immature and adult) in the target territory. It also includes supplementary information with bibliographical details for each species. This book is based upon work from COST Action TD1303, supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)



Routledge Handbook of Ocean Resources and Management

Routledge Handbook of Ocean Resources and Management Author Hance D. Smith
ISBN-10 9781136294822
Release 2015-10-16
Pages 612
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This comprehensive handbook provides a global overview of ocean resources and management by focusing on critical issues relating to human development and the marine environment, their interrelationships as expressed through the uses of the sea as a resource, and the regional expression of these themes. The underlying approach is geographical, with prominence given to the biosphere, political arrangements and regional patterns – all considered to be especially crucial to the human understanding required for the use and management of the world's oceans. Part one addresses key themes in our knowledge of relationships between people and the sea on a global scale, including economic and political issues, and understanding and managing marine environments. Part two provides a systematic review of the uses of the sea, grouped into food, ocean space, materials and energy, and the sea as an environmental resource. Part three on the geography of the sea considers management strategies especially related to the state system, and regional management developments in both core economic regions and the developing periphery. The primary themes within each chapter are governance (including institutional and legal bases); policy – sets of ideas governing management; and management, both technical and general.



Ecophysiology and Responses of Plants under Salt Stress

Ecophysiology and Responses of Plants under Salt Stress Author Parvaiz Ahmad
ISBN-10 9781461447474
Release 2012-11-09
Pages 512
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This book will shed light on the effect of salt stress on plants development, proteomics, genomics, genetic engineering, and plant adaptations, among other topics. Understanding the molecular basis will be helpful in developing selection strategies for improving salinity tolerance. The book will cover around 25 chapters with contributors from all over the world.



Slanted Truths

Slanted Truths Author Lynn Margulis
ISBN-10 9781461222842
Release 2013-11-27
Pages 368
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"Lynn Margulis is one of the most successful synthetic thinkers in modern biology. This collection of her work, enhanced by essays co-authored with Dorion Sagan, is a welcome introduction to the full breadth of her many contributions." EDWARD O. WILSON, AUTHOR OF THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE "An important contribution to the history of the 20th century. Read it and you will taste the flavor of real science." JAMES LOVELOCK, AUTHOR OF GAIA: A NEW LOOK AT LIFE ON EARTH "Truly inspirational and of fundamental importance. This thoughtful series of essays on some of the largest questions concerning the nature of life on earth deserves careful study."PETER RAVEN, MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN



Biological Soil Crusts An Organizing Principle in Drylands

Biological Soil Crusts  An Organizing Principle in Drylands Author Bettina Weber
ISBN-10 9783319302140
Release 2016-05-21
Pages 549
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This volume summarizes our current understanding of biological soil crusts (biocrusts), which are omnipresent in dryland regions. Since they cover the soil surface, they influence, or even control, all surface exchange processes. Being one of the oldest terrestrial communities, biocrusts comprise a high diversity of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with uncounted bacteria, and fungi. The authors show that biocrusts are an integral part of dryland ecosystems, stabilizing soils, influencing plant germination and growth, and playing a key role in carbon, nitrogen and water cycling. Initial attempts have been made to use biocrusts as models in ecological theory. On the other hand, biocrusts are endangered by local disruptions and global change, highlighting the need for enhanced recovery methods. This book offers a comprehensive overview of the fascinating field of biocrust research, making it indispensable not only for scientists in this area, but also for land managers, policy makers, and anyone interested in the environment.



Plant Microbe Interaction An Approach to Sustainable Agriculture

Plant Microbe Interaction  An Approach to Sustainable Agriculture Author Devendra K. Choudhary
ISBN-10 9789811028540
Release 2017-02-08
Pages 509
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The book addresses current public concern about the adverse effect of agrochemicals and their effect on the agro-ecosystem. This book also aims to satisfy and contribute to the increasing interest in understanding the co-operative activities among microbial populations and their interaction with plants. It contains chapters on a variety of interrelated aspects of plant-microbe interactions with a single theme of stress management and sustainable agriculture. The book will be very useful for students, academicians, researcher working on plant-microbe interaction and also for policy makers involved in food security and sustainable agriculture.



Encyclopedia of Immunobiology

Encyclopedia of Immunobiology Author
ISBN-10 9780080921525
Release 2016-04-27
Pages 3126
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Encyclopedia of Immunobiology provides the largest integrated source of immunological knowledge currently available. It consists of broad ranging, validated summaries on all of the major topics in the field as written by a team of leading experts. The large number of topics covered is relevant to a wide range of scientists working on experimental and clinical immunology, microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, veterinary science, physiology, and hematology. The book is built in thematic sections that allow readers to rapidly navigate around related content. Specific sections focus on basic, applied, and clinical immunology. The structure of each section helps readers from a range of backgrounds gain important understanding of the subject. Contains tables, pictures, and multimedia features that enhance the learning process In-depth coverage allows readers from a range of backgrounds to benefit from the material Provides handy cross-referencing between articles to improve readability, including easy access from portable devices



Processes of Life

Processes of Life Author John Dupré
ISBN-10 9780199691982
Release 2012-01-26
Pages 350
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John Dupré explores recent revolutionary developments in biology and considers their relevance for our understanding of human nature and society. He reveals how the advance of genetic science is changing our view of the constituents of life, and shows how an understanding of microbiology will overturn standard assumptions about the living world.



Bioremediation Applications for Environmental Protection and Management

Bioremediation  Applications for Environmental Protection and Management Author Sunita J. Varjani
ISBN-10 9789811074851
Release 2017-12-11
Pages 411
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This book examines bioremediation technologies as a tool for environmental protection and management. It provides global perspectives on recent advances in the bioremediation of various environmental pollutants. Topics covered include comparative analysis of bio-gas electrification from anaerobic digesters, mathematical modeling in bioremediation, the evaluation of next-generation sequencing technologies for environmental monitoring in wastewater abatement; and the impact of diverse wastewater remediation techniques such as the use of nanofibers, microbes and genetically modified organisms; bioelectrochemical treatment; phytoremediation; and biosorption strategies. The book is targeted at scientists and researchers working in the field of bioremediation.