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The Legal Foundations of Inequality

The Legal Foundations of Inequality Author Roberto Gargarella
ISBN-10 9780521195027
Release 2010-04-12
Pages 273
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This book explores the influence of opposing constitutional ideals during the "founding period" of constitutionalism in the Americas. Examining a range of countries including the United States, Argentina, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela, Roberto Gargarella outlines these views and traces their influence to the present day.



Constituents Before Assembly

Constituents Before Assembly Author Todd A. Eisenstadt
ISBN-10 9781107168220
Release 2017-07-31
Pages 224
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Under what circumstances do new constitutions improve a nation's level of democracy? Between 1974 and 2014, democracy increased in 77 countries following the adoption of a new constitution, but it decreased or stayed the same in 47 others. This book demonstrates that increased participation in the forming of constitutions positively impacts levels of democracy. It is discovered that the degree of citizen participation at the 'convening stage' of constitution-making has a strong effect on levels of democracy. This finding defies the common theory that levels of democracy result from the content of constitutions, and instead lends support to 'deliberative' theories of democracy. Patterns of constitutions are then compared, differentiating imposed and popular constitution-making processes, using case studies from Chile, Nigeria, Gambia, and Venezuela to illustrate the dynamics specific to imposed constitution-making, and case studies from Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, and Tunisia to illustrate the specific dynamics of popular constitution-making.



Democracy and the Rule of Law

Democracy and the Rule of Law Author Adam Przeworski
ISBN-10 0521532663
Release 2003-07-21
Pages 321
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Addresses why governments sometimes follow the law and other times choose to evade the law.



Beyond Origins

Beyond Origins Author Angélica Maria Bernal
ISBN-10 9780190685638
Release 2017-06-30
Pages 304
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The foundings of constitutional democracies are commonly traced to singular moments. In turn, these moments of national origin are characterized as radical political innovations, notable for their civic unity, perfect legitimacy and binding authority. This common view is attractive as it suggests original founding events, actors, and ideals that can be evoked to legitimize state authority and unify citizens. Angélica Maria Bernal challenges this view of foundings, however, explaining that it is ultimately dangerous, misguided, and unsustainable. Beyond Origins argues that the ascription of a universal authority to original founding events is problematic because it limits our understanding of subsequent foundational changes, political transformation and innovation. This singular view also confounds our ability to account for all of the actors and venues through which foundation-building and constitutional transformation occurs. Because such understandings of national foundings obscure the many power struggles at work in them, these origin stories are troubling and unhelpful. In the wake of these limited views of founding, Bernal develops an alternate approach: "founding beyond origins." Rather than asserting that founding events are authoritatively settled and relegated to history, this framework redefines foundings as contentious, uncertain, and incomplete. Indeed, the book looks at a wide variety of contexts-early imperial Rome; revolutionary Haiti and France; the mid-20th century, racially-segregated United States; and contemporary Latin America-to reconsider political foundings as a contestatory and ongoing dimension of political life. Bridging classic and contemporary political and constitutional theory with historical readings, Bernal reorients approaches to foundings, arguing that it is only through context-specific and pragmatist understandings of political origins that we can realize the potential for radical democratic change.



Political Order and Inequality

Political Order and Inequality Author Carles Boix
ISBN-10 9781107089433
Release 2015-02-23
Pages 334
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The fundamental question of political theory, one that precedes all other questions about the nature of political life, is why there is a state at all. This book describes the foundations of stateless societies, why and how states emerge, and the basis of political obligation.



Exclusion by Elections

Exclusion by Elections Author John D. Huber
ISBN-10 9781316872772
Release 2017-05-02
Pages
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Exclusion by Elections develops a theory about the circumstances under which 'class identities' as opposed to 'ethnic identities' become salient in democratic politics, and links this theory to issues of inequality and the propensity of governments to address it. The book argues that in societies with even modest levels of ethnic diversity, inequality invites ethnic politics, and ethnic politics results in less redistribution than class politics. Thus, contrary to existing workhorse models in social science, where democracies are expected to respond to inequality by increasing redistribution, the argument here is that inequality interacts with ethnic diversity to discourage redistribution. As a result, inequality often becomes reinforced by inequality itself. The author explores the argument empirically by examining cross-national patterns of voting behaviour, redistribution and democratic transitions, and he discusses the argument's implications for identifying strategies that can be used to address rising inequality in the world today.



Boundary Control

Boundary Control Author Edward L. Gibson
ISBN-10 9780521192231
Release 2013-01-07
Pages 192
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The democratization of the national government is only a first step in the diffusion of democracy throughout a country's territory. Even after a national government is democratized, subnational authoritarian "enclaves" often continue to deny rights to citizens of local jurisdictions. This is a common but little-understood problem in the post-communist and developing world and was a key facet of American politics until the fall of the "Solid South" in the mid-twentieth century. This book explains how subnational authoritarianism is part of normal democratic politics and strategic interactions between local authoritarians and national democratic leaders.



Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy

Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy Author Daron Acemoglu
ISBN-10 0521855268
Release 2006
Pages 416
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This book systematically explains why some countries are democracies while others are not.



Democracy in a Russian Mirror

Democracy in a Russian Mirror Author Adam Przeworski
ISBN-10 9781107053397
Release 2015-05-21
Pages 354
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What can we learn about democracy from the experience of post-Soviet Russia? What can we learn about the prospects for democracy in Russia from the experience of 'really existing democracies'? Must some 'pre-requisites', cultural or material, be fulfilled for democracy to become possible? This book examines the current state of Russia and the prospects for democracy, posing several challenges to our understanding of democracy. Thirteen contributors expand the debate over these questions, offering a variety of insights, interpretations, and conclusions vital to understanding the conditions of emergence and survival of successful democracies.



Theory of World Security

Theory of World Security Author Ken Booth
ISBN-10 9781139467506
Release 2007-12-20
Pages
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What is real? What can we know? How might we act? This book sets out to answer these fundamental philosophical questions in a radical and original theory of security for our times. Arguing that the concept of security in world politics has long been imprisoned by conservative thinking, Ken Booth explores security as a precious instrumental value which gives individuals and groups the opportunity to pursue the invention of humanity rather than live determined and diminished lives. Booth suggests that human society globally is facing a set of converging historical crises. He looks to critical social theory and radical international theory to develop a comprehensive framework for understanding the historical challenges facing global business-as-usual and for planning to reconstruct a more cosmopolitan future. Theory of World Security is a challenge both to well-established ways of thinking about security and alternative approaches within critical security studies.



The Hidden Rules of Race

The Hidden Rules of Race Author Andrea Flynn
ISBN-10 9781108417549
Release 2017-09-30
Pages
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This book explores the racial rules that are often hidden but perpetuate vast racial inequities in the United States.



Dictators and Democrats

Dictators and Democrats Author Stephan Haggard
ISBN-10 9781400882984
Release 2016-08-30
Pages 424
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From the 1980s through the first decade of the twenty-first century, the spread of democracy across the developing and post-Communist worlds transformed the global political landscape. What drove these changes and what determined whether the emerging democracies would stabilize or revert to authoritarian rule? Dictators and Democrats takes a comprehensive look at the transitions to and from democracy in recent decades. Deploying both statistical and qualitative analysis, Stephen Haggard and Robert Kaufman engage with theories of democratic change and advocate approaches that emphasize political and institutional factors. While inequality has been a prominent explanation for democratic transitions, the authors argue that its role has been limited, and elites as well as masses can drive regime change. Examining seventy-eight cases of democratic transition and twenty-five reversions since 1980, Haggard and Kaufman show how differences in authoritarian regimes and organizational capabilities shape popular protest and elite initiatives in transitions to democracy, and how institutional weaknesses cause some democracies to fail. The determinants of democracy lie in the strength of existing institutions and the public's capacity to engage in collective action. There are multiple routes to democracy, but those growing out of mass mobilization may provide more checks on incumbents than those emerging from intra-elite bargains. Moving beyond well-known beliefs regarding regime changes, Dictators and Democrats explores the conditions under which transitions to democracy are likely to arise.



Inequality and Democratization

Inequality and Democratization Author Ben W. Ansell
ISBN-10 9781107000360
Release 2014-12-18
Pages 254
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This book offers a new theory of the historical relationship between economic modernization and the emergence of democracy on a global scale, focusing on the effects of land and income inequality.



The People Vs Democracy

The People Vs  Democracy Author Yascha Mounk
ISBN-10 9780674976825
Release 2018-03-05
Pages 400
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From India to Turkey, from Poland to the United States, authoritarian populists have seized power. Two core components of liberal democracy--individual rights and the popular will--are at war, putting democracy itself at risk. In plain language, Yascha Mounk describes how we got here, where we need to go, and why there is little time left to waste.



Democracy and Redistribution

Democracy and Redistribution Author Carles Boix
ISBN-10 0521532671
Release 2003-07-21
Pages 264
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In this 2003 book, Boix offers a complete theory of political transitions.



The Political Construction of Business Interests

The Political Construction of Business Interests Author Cathie Jo Martin
ISBN-10 9781107018662
Release 2012-03-30
Pages 307
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The Political Construction of Business Interests recounts employers' struggles to define their collective social identities at turning points in capitalist development.



Power and the Vote

Power and the Vote Author Brian Min
ISBN-10 9781107109841
Release 2015-09-30
Pages 288
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Who gets electricity in the developing world? Power and the Vote offers a deeply political answer tested against new data from satellites.