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The Nature of Science

The Nature of Science Author Fernando Espinoza
ISBN-10 9781442209534
Release 2011-10-16
Pages 184
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The role of science, along with its nature and development, are commonly misunderstood. Fernando Espinoza shines light on these misconceptions to show that the role of science also lies in its effect and influence upon society through historical, philosophical, and sociological perspectives. This book incorporates the mandates by national organizations such as the National Research Council and National Science Teachers Association and is a useful text for required courses of general education majors.



Integrating History and Philosophy of Science

Integrating History and Philosophy of Science Author Seymour Mauskopf
ISBN-10 9400717458
Release 2011-09-06
Pages 250
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Though the publication of Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions seemed to herald the advent of a unified study of the history and philosophy of science, it is a hard fact that history of science and philosophy of science have increasingly grown apart. Recently, however, there has been a series of workshops on both sides of the Atlantic (called '&HPS') intended to bring historians and philosophers of science together to discuss new integrative approaches. This is therefore an especially appropriate time to explore the problems with and prospects for integrating history and philosophy of science. The original essays in this volume, all from specialists in the history of science or philosophy of science, offer such an exploration from a wide variety of perspectives. The volume combines general reflections on the current state of history and philosophy of science with studies of the relation between the two disciplines in specific historical and scientific cases.



Biological Individuality

Biological Individuality Author Scott Lidgard
ISBN-10 9780226446455
Release 2017-05-24
Pages 367
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Introduction: working together on individuality / Lynn K. Nyhart and Scott Lidgard -- The work of biological individuality: concepts and contexts / Scott Lidgard and Lynn K. Nyhart -- Cells, colonies, and clones: individuality in the volvocine algae / Matthew D. Herron -- Individuality and the control of life cycles / Beckett Sterner -- Discovering the ties that bind: cell-cell communication and the development of cell sociology / Andrew S. Reynolds -- Alternation of generations and individuality, 1851 / Lynn K. Nyhart and Scott Lidgard -- Spencer's evolutionary entanglement: from liminal individuals to implicit collectivities / Snait Gissis -- Biological individuality and enkapsis: from Martin Heidenhain's synthesiology to the völkisch national community / Olivier Rieppel -- Parasitology, zoology, and society in France, ca. 1880-1920 / Michael A. Osborne -- Metabolism, autonomy, and individuality / Hannah Landecker -- Bodily parts in the structure-function dialectic / Ingo Brigandt -- Commentaries: historical, biological, and philosophical perspectives -- Distrust that particular intuition: resilient essentialisms and empirical challenges in the history of biological individuality / James Elwick -- Biological individuality: a relational reading / Scott F. Gilbert -- Philosophical dimensions of individuality / Alan C. Love and Ingo Brigandt



Holism and the Understanding of Science

Holism and the Understanding of Science Author Louis Caruana
ISBN-10 9781351738194
Release 2017-11-22
Pages 182
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This title was first published in 2000: This book addresses issues which are central in the philosophy of science, exploring a large and relevant literature. It should be of broad interest in the philosophy of science community." Professor Peter Lipton, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge, UK. How can the complexities of understanding science be dealt with as a whole? Is philosophical realism still a defensible philosophical position? Exploring such fundamental questions, this book claims that science ought to be understood in terms of universal practices and that such an understanding supports an attractive version of scientific realism. Holism is attracting renewed scholarly attention but is still loosely used in a range of different contexts, from semantics to medicine. This book presents a detailed philosophical analysis of holism, concentrating on two complementary aspects of holism - cognitive and social - to investigate its relevance to science studies. Bridging the gap between analytical, historical and sociological accounts of science, Caruana draws together results from recent research by Davidson, Dummett, Quine, Wright and others, on Wittgenstein's later philosophy. Demonstrating that holism, both cognitive and social, is not only essential for a full understanding of science but also compatible with a particular version of scientific realism, this book presents important new perspectives for the philosophers of science and scholars of the history of science in particular. Louis Caruana is Assistant Lecturer in Philosophy of Science and Nature at the Gregorian University, Rome, Italy.



The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Author Thomas S. Kuhn
ISBN-10 9780226458144
Release 2012-04-18
Pages 264
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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.



Integrating Scientific Disciplines

Integrating Scientific Disciplines Author William Bechtel
ISBN-10 9789401094351
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 360
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Interdisciplinary research has been a popular idea with many people in the last 20 years. Academic administrators have admonished their faculty to become more interdisciplinary. Students often request the chance to pursue an interdisciplinary degree. While the issue of managing interdisciplinary projects has received a fair amount of attention by those interested in science management, interdisciplinary research has received little attention from historians, philosophers or sociologists of science or from scientists themselves. Yet, there l;lre a number of cases within the life sciences where researchers have been actively engaged in endeavors that take them across disciplinary boundaries. These are ripe for investigation by those interested in the process of science. To provide an in-depth study of some historical or contemporary cases of cross disciplinary research activity in the life sciences, a conference was held at Georgia State University in May, 1984. This conference was supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities (U. S. A. ) through their research conference program. Over a three-day period historians, philosophers, and researchers who were actively engaged in various of the life sciences discussed specific examples of interdisciplinary research and tried to analyze what was needed for successful crossing of disciplinary boundaries. After the conference, each of the participants revised their original presentations, partly in light of the discussion at the conference. The papers in this volume are the fruits of that endeavor.



Managing Science

Managing Science Author Frederick Betz
ISBN-10 1441974881
Release 2010-11-30
Pages 388
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What is science? How is it performed? Is science only a method or is it also an institution? These are questions at the core of Managing Science, a handbook on how scientific research is conducted and its results disseminated. Knowledge creation occurs through scientific research in universities, industrial laboratories, and government agencies. Any knowledge management system needs to promote effective research processes to foster innovation, and, ultimately, to channel that innovation into economic competitiveness and wealth. However, science is a complicated topic. It includes both methodological aspects and organizational aspects, which have traditionally been discussed in isolation from each other. In Managing Science, Frederick Betz presents a holistic approach to science, incorporating both philosophical and practical elements, in a framework that integrates scientific method, content, administration and application. Illustrating all of the key concepts with illustrative case studies (both historical and contemporary, and from a wide spectrum of fields), Betz provides in-depth discussion of the process of science. He addresses the social, organizational, institutional, and infrastructural context through which research projects are designed and their results applied, along the path from experimentation to innovation to commercialization of new products, services, and processes. This practical approach to science is the foundation of today's knowledge-intensive and technology-enabled industries, and positions the management of science within the broader context of knowledge management and its implications for organizations, industries, and regional and national technology management policies. Managing Science will be an essential resource for students in all areas of research, industry scientists and R&D specialists, policymakers and university administrators, and anyone concerned with the application of research to economic growth and development.



The Evidence for Evolution

The Evidence for Evolution Author Alan R. Rogers
ISBN-10 9780226723853
Release 2011-06-01
Pages 128
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According to polling data, most Americans doubt that evolution is a real phenomenon. And it’s no wonder that so many are skeptical: many of today’s biology courses and textbooks dwell on the mechanisms of evolution—natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow—but say little about the evidence that evolution happens at all. How do we know that species change? Has there really been enough time for evolution to operate? With The Evidence for Evolution, Alan R. Rogers provides an elegant, straightforward text that details the evidence for evolution. Rogers covers different levels of evolution, from within-species changes, which are much less challenging to see and believe, to much larger ones, say, from fish to amphibian, or from land mammal to whale. For each case, he supplies numerous lines of evidence to illustrate the changes, including fossils, DNA, and radioactive isotopes. His comprehensive treatment stresses recent advances in knowledge but also recounts the give and take between skeptical scientists who first asked “how can we be sure” and then marshaled scientific evidence to attain certainty. The Evidence for Evolution is a valuable addition to the literature on evolution and will be essential to introductory courses in the life sciences.



Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences

Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences Author
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105131564093
Release 2008
Pages 23
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Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences book for free.



Science Environment Health

Science   Environment   Health Author Albert Zeyer
ISBN-10 9789048139491
Release 2012-05-24
Pages 197
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Health and the environment are important learning areas in science education and their significance is growing. Not only do they have high social relevance, but they are also close to students’ interests and needs. They provide many opportunities to unlock science with questions that are personally relevant to boys and girls and that inspire them to engage in science. This book contains a selection of papers from prominent professionals in science, health and environmental education, who reflect on science education, each from their specific point of view. The core idea is to present well-founded perspectives on how science education may benefit from challenges stemming from both health and environmental education. Specific reasons are discussed as to why these two areas are particularly legitimized to challenge science education, and their potential impact on a revision of science education is evaluated. A new pedagogy for science¦environment¦health that yields interesting and relevant science education for students and teachers, and addresses the grand challenges of this century: what an attractive and rewarding project! The book will motivate teachers, teacher educators and science education researchers to take part in this on-going project.



Science Society

Science   Society Author Peter Daempfle
ISBN-10 9781449685027
Release 2012-12-13
Pages 264
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Written for the undergraduate, majors and non-majors alike taking a foundational course in science, Science & Society: Thought and Education for the 21st Century helps students become better consumers of science by showing them how to think like a scientist. Scientific principles are infused with case studies, stories, paradoxes, poetry, medical dilemmas, and misconceptions, all through a lens of skepticism. Throughout the book, provocative science examples are provided that guide students to consider facts more critically. The author exposes readers to research methods, science philosophy, critical thinking strategies, mathematics, and history, and urges them to question data and think scientifically. End-of-chapter questions link to interesting content stimulates debate and discussion in the classroom and this engaging, interdisciplinary approach to learning science leads student to real truths behind many natural phenomena. •End-of-chapter review questions creatively stimulate discussion and span all levels of Bloom's taxonomy. •The text makes science accessible to a broad range of readers and covers all of the key areas needed for a full understanding of science. •Questions stimulate debate and discussion and cover science philosophy, history, mathematics, education, research methods, and critical thinking strategies. •Provides models of reasoning and guidelines and practice activities for thinking critically. •Presents major themes common to all scientific disciplines in a clear and readable manner for undergraduates



Journal for the History of Astronomy

Journal for the History of Astronomy Author
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105005262550
Release 1996
Pages
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Journal for the History of Astronomy has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Journal for the History of Astronomy also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Journal for the History of Astronomy book for free.



All About Science

All About Science Author Maria Burguete
ISBN-10 9789814472944
Release 2014-10-15
Pages 456
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There is a lot of confusion and misconception concerning science. The nature and contents of science is an unsettled problem. For example, Thales of 2,600 years ago is recognized as the father of science but the word science was introduced only in the 14th century; the definition of science is often avoided in books about philosophy of science. This book aims to clear up all these confusions and present new developments in the philosophy, history, sociology and communication of science. It also aims to showcase the achievement of China's top scholars in these areas. The 18 chapters, divided into five parts, are written by prominent scholars including the Nobel laureate Robin Warren, sociologist Harry Collins, and physicist-turned-historian Dietrich Stauffer. Contents:About Science 1: Basics — Knowledge, Nature, Science and Scimat (Lui Lam)About Science 2: Philosophy, History, Sociology and Communication (Lui Lam)Philosophy of Science:Towards a Phenomenological Philosophy of Science (Guo-Sheng Wu)The Predicament of Scientific Culture in Ancient China (Hong-Sheng Wang)What Do Scientists Know! (Nigel Sanitt)How to Deal with the Whole: Two Kinds of Holism in Methodology (Jin-Yang Liu)History of Science:Helicobactor: The Ease and Difficulty of a New Discovery (Robin Warren)Science in Victorian Era: New Observations on Two Old Theses (Dun Liu)Medical Studies in Portugal Around 1911 (Maria Burguete)The Founding of the International Liquid Crystal Society (Lui Lam)Sociology of Science:Three Waves in Science Studies (Harry Collins)Solitons and Revolution in China: 1978–1983 (Lui Lam)Scientific Culture in Contemporary China (Bing Liu and Mei-Fang Zhang)Communication of Science:Science Communication: A History and Review (Peter Broks)Popular-Science Writings in Early Modern China (Lin Yin)Other Science Matters:Understanding Art Through Science: From Socrates to the Contextual Brain (Kajsa Berg)Spy Video Games After 9/11: Narrative and Pleasure (Ting-Ting Wang)Statistical Physics for Humanities: A Tutorial (Dietrich Stauffer) Readership: Researchers and laypeople interested in science. Keywords:Science;Philosophy;Sociology;Communication



Marconi s Wireless and the Rhetoric of a New Technology

Marconi s Wireless and the Rhetoric of a New Technology Author Aaron A. Toscano
ISBN-10 9789400739765
Release 2012-02-09
Pages 145
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By examining a selection of the discourse surrounding Marconi's invention of the wireless, which excited early 20th century audiences even before becoming a viable technology, this book establishes a broader definition for contemporary technical communication.



Revisiting Discovery and Justification

Revisiting Discovery and Justification Author Jutta Schickore
ISBN-10 9781402042515
Release 2006-04-18
Pages 229
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The distinction between the contexts of discovery and justification has left a turbulent wake in the philosophy of science. This book recognizes the need to re-open the debate about the nature, development, and significance of the context distinction, about its merits and flaws. The discussion clears the ground for the productive and fruitful integration of these new developments into philosophy of science.



An Introduction to the Historiography of Science

An Introduction to the Historiography of Science Author Helge Kragh
ISBN-10 0521389216
Release 1989-11-24
Pages 235
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This book introduces the methodological and philosophical problems with which modern history of science is concerned, offering a comprehensive and critical review through description and evaluation of significant historiographical viewpoints. Incorporating discussion of key problems in general historical writing, with examples drawn from a range of disciplines, this non-elementary introduction bridges the gap between general history and history of science. Following a review of the early development of the history of science, the theory of history as applied to science history is introduced, examining the basic problems which this generates, including problems of periodisation, ideological functions, and the conflict between diachronical and anachronical historiography. Finally, the book considers the critical use, and analysis, of historical sources, and the possibility of the experiemental reconstruction of history. Aimed primarily at students, the book's broad scope and integration of historical, philosophical and scientific matters will interest philosophers, sociologists and general historians, for whom there is no alternative introduction to the subject at this level.



The Copernican Question

The Copernican Question Author Robert Westman
ISBN-10 9780520948167
Release 2011-07-28
Pages 704
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In 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus publicly defended his hypothesis that the earth is a planet and the sun a body resting near the center of a finite universe. But why did Copernicus make this bold proposal? And why did it matter? The Copernican Question reframes this pivotal moment in the history of science, centering the story on a conflict over the credibility of astrology that erupted in Italy just as Copernicus arrived in 1496. Copernicus engendered enormous resistance when he sought to protect astrology by reconstituting its astronomical foundations. Robert S. Westman shows that efforts to answer the astrological skeptics became a crucial unifying theme of the early modern scientific movement. His interpretation of this "long sixteenth century," from the 1490s to the 1610s, offers a new framework for understanding the great transformations in natural philosophy in the century that followed.