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The Neanderthal Legacy

The Neanderthal Legacy Author Paul Mellars
ISBN-10 0691034931
Release 1996
Pages 471
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Good books on Neanderthals have been a pleasing feature of the last few years; especially notable being The Neanderthals (Trinkhaus and Shipman 1994) and the prize-winning, In Search of the Neanderthals (Stringer and Gamble 1994). This book is different from both; firstly in its concentration on South-West France (the best studied but only one part of the Neanderthal world) and, secondly, in its emphasis on the behavioural, rather than anatomical or strictly technological, aspects of the Neanderthal. Beautifully written, and making full use of every archaeological source, this book adds much to our overall picture of Neanderthal society, particularly in showing how the material record (rich from 115,000 to 35,000 years ago) reflects changing behaviour. While he discusses them in detail, the author finally takes a middle way between the two extremes of theory which have developed on how similar to modern humans Neanderthals really were.



The Origins of Religion in the Paleolithic

The Origins of Religion in the Paleolithic Author Gregory J. Wightman
ISBN-10 9781442242906
Release 2014-12-18
Pages 306
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Gregory J. Wightman explores the significance of goal-directed action and the rise of material culture in this intricate, evidence-based examination of religion’s earliest origins.



Human origin sites and the World Heritage Convention in Eurasia

Human origin sites and the World Heritage Convention in Eurasia Author Sanz, Nuria (UNESCO)
ISBN-10 9789231001079
Release 2015-09-07
Pages 229
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Human origin sites and the World Heritage Convention in Eurasia has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Human origin sites and the World Heritage Convention in Eurasia also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Human origin sites and the World Heritage Convention in Eurasia book for free.



Neanderthals in the Levant

Neanderthals in the Levant Author Donald O. Henry
ISBN-10 9781441167194
Release 2003-10-01
Pages 338
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The volume traces the controversy that revolves around the bio-cultural relationships of Archaic (Neanderthal) and Modern humans at global and regional, Levantine scales. The focus of the book is on understanding the degree to which the behavioral organization of Archaic groups differed from Moderns. To this end, a case study is presented for a 44-70,000 year old, Middle Paleolithic occupation of a Jordanian rockshelter. The research, centering on the spatial analysis of artifacts, hearths and related data, reveals how the Archaic occupants of the shelter structured their activities and placed certain conceptual labels on different parts of the site. The structure of Tor Faraj is compared to site structures defined for modern foragers, in both ethnographic and archaeological contexts, to measure any differences in behavioral organization. The comparisons show very similar structures for Tor Faraj and its modern cohorts. The implications of this finding challenge prevailing views in the emergence of modern human controversy in which Archaic groups are thought to have had inferior cognition and less complex behavioral-social organization than modern foragers. And, it is generally thought that such behaviors only emerged after the appearance of the Upper Paleolithic, dated some 10-20,000 years later than the occupation of Tor Faraj.



The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial

The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial Author Sarah Tarlow
ISBN-10 9780191650390
Release 2013-06-06
Pages 872
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The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial reviews the current state of mortuary archaeology and its practice, highlighting its often contentious place in the modern socio-politics of archaeology. It contains forty-four chapters which focus on the history of the discipline and its current scientific techniques and methods. Written by leading, international scholars in the field, it derives its examples and case studies from a wide range of time periods, such as the middle palaeolithic to the twentieth century, and geographical areas which include Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Asia. Combining up-to-date knowledge of relevant archaeological research with critical assessments of the theme and an evaluation of future research trajectories, it draws attention to the social, symbolic, and theoretical aspects of interpreting mortuary archaeology. The volume is well-illustrated with maps, plans, photographs, and illustrations and is ideally suited for students and researchers.



How To Think Like a Neandertal

How To Think Like a Neandertal Author Thomas Wynn
ISBN-10 9780199912339
Release 2011-11-01
Pages 224
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There have been many books, movies, and even TV commercials featuring Neandertals--some serious, some comical. But what was it really like to be a Neandertal? How were their lives similar to or different from ours? In How to Think Like a Neandertal, archaeologist Thomas Wynn and psychologist Frederick L. Coolidge team up to provide a brilliant account of the mental life of Neandertals, drawing on the most recent fossil and archaeological remains. Indeed, some Neandertal remains are not fossilized, allowing scientists to recover samples of their genes--one specimen had the gene for red hair and, more provocatively, all had a gene called FOXP2, which is thought to be related to speech. Given the differences between their faces and ours, their voices probably sounded a bit different, and the range of consonants and vowels they could generate might have been different. But they could talk, and they had a large (perhaps huge) vocabulary--words for places, routes, techniques, individuals, and emotions. Extensive archaeological remains of stone tools and living sites (and, yes, they did often live in caves) indicate that Neandertals relied on complex technical procedures and spent most of their lives in small family groups. The authors sift the evidence that Neandertals had a symbolic culture--looking at their treatment of corpses, the use of fire, and possible body coloring--and conclude that they probably did not have a sense of the supernatural. The book explores the brutal nature of their lives, especially in northwestern Europe, where men and women with spears hunted together for mammoths and wooly rhinoceroses. They were pain tolerant, very likely taciturn, and not easy to excite. Wynn and Coolidge offer here an eye-opening portrait of Neandertals, painting a remarkable picture of these long-vanished people and providing insight, as they go along, into our own minds and culture.



The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology Author Peter Mitchell
ISBN-10 9780191626159
Release 2013-07-04
Pages 1080
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Africa has the longest and arguably the most diverse archaeological record of any of the continents. It is where the human lineage first evolved and from where Homo sapiens spread across the rest of the world. Later, it witnessed novel experiments in food-production and unique trajectories to urbanism and the organisation of large communities that were not always structured along strictly hierarchical lines. Millennia of engagement with societies in other parts of the world confirm Africa's active participation in the construction of the modern world, while the richness of its history, ethnography, and linguistics provide unusually powerful opportunities for constructing interdisciplinary narratives of Africa's past. This Handbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date synthesis of African archaeology, covering the entirety of the continent's past from the beginnings of human evolution to the archaeological legacy of European colonialism. As well as covering almost all periods and regions of the continent, it includes a mixture of key methodological and theoretical issues and debates, and situates the subject's contemporary practice within the discipline's history and the infrastructural challenges now facing its practitioners. Bringing together essays on all these themes from over seventy contributors, many of them living and working in Africa, it offers a highly accessible, contemporary account of the subject for use by scholars and students of not only archaeology, but also history, anthropology, and other disciplines.



Landscape of the Mind

Landscape of the Mind Author John F. Hoffecker
ISBN-10 9780231518482
Release 2010-08-05
Pages 288
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John F. Hoffecker explores the origin and growth of the mind, drawing on information from the human fossil record, archaeology, and history. Hoffecker argues that, as an indirect result of bipedal locomotion, early humans developed a feedback relationship among their hands, brains, and tools, evolving the capacity to externalize thoughts in the form of shaped stone objects. When anatomically modern humans evolved a parallel capacity to externalize thought as symbolic language, individual brains within social groups were integrated into a neocortical internet, or super-brain, thus giving birth to the mind. Noting that archaeological traces of symbolism coincide with evidence for the ability to generate novel technology, Hoffecker contends that human creativity, as well as higher-order consciousness, is a product of the collective super-brain. Hoffecker equates the subsequent growth of the mind with human history, which began in Africa more than 50,000 years ago. As anatomically modern humans spread across the globe, adapting to a variety of climates and habitats, they redesigned themselves technologically and developed alternative realities via toolmaking, tool use, and artistic expression. Hoffecker connects the rise of civilization to a hierarchical reorganization of the super-brain, triggered by explosive population growth. According to him, subsequent history reflects the varying degrees to which rigid hierarchies of states and empires suppressed the creative powers of the mind, constraining the further accumulation of knowledge. The modern world emerged from the fragments of a collapsed empire after 1200 AD. In the final chapter, Hoffecker speculates on the possibility of artificial intelligence and a mind without biology.



Hominids

Hominids Author Robert J. Sawyer
ISBN-10 1429914637
Release 2003-02-17
Pages 448
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Robert Sawyer's SF novels are perennial nominees for the Hugo Award, the Nebula Award, or both. Clearly, he must be doing something right since each one has been something new and different. What they do have in common is imaginative originality, great stories, and unique scientific extrapolation. His latest is no exception. Hominids is a strong, stand-alone SF novel, but it's also the first book of The Neanderthal Parallax, a trilogy that will examine two unique species of people. They are alien to each other, yet bound together by the never-ending quest for knowledge and, beneath their differences, a common humanity. We are one of those species, the other is the Neanderthals of a parallel world where they, not Homo sapiens, became the dominant intelligence. In that world, Neanderthal civilization has reached heights of culture and science comparable to our own, but is very different in history, society, and philosophy. During a risky experiment deep in a mine in Canada, Ponter Boddit, a Neanderthal physicist, accidentally pierces the barrier between worlds and is transferred to our universe, where in the same mine another experiment is taking place. Hurt, but alive, he is almost immediately recognized as a Neanderthal, but only much later as a scientist. He is captured and studied, alone and bewildered, a stranger in a strange land. But Ponter is also befriended-by a doctor and a physicist who share his questing intelligence and boundless enthusiasm for the world's strangeness, and especially by geneticist Mary Vaughan, a lonely woman with whom he develops a special rapport. Meanwhile, Ponter's partner, Adikor Huld, finds himself with a messy lab, a missing body, suspicious people all around, and an explosive murder trial that he can't possibly win because he has no idea what actually happened. Talk about a scientific challenge! Contact between humans and Neanderthals creates a relationship fraught with conflict, philosophical challenge, and threat to the existence of one species or the other-or both-but equally rich in boundless possibilities for cooperation and growth on many levels, from the practical to the esthetic to the scientific to the spiritual. In short, Robert J. Sawyner has done it again. Hominids is the winner of the 2003 Hugo Award for Best Novel. At the Publisher's request, this title is being sold without Digital Rights Management Software (DRM) applied.



Human Ecology of Beringia

Human Ecology of Beringia Author John F. Hoffecker
ISBN-10 9780231503884
Release 2012-05-29
Pages 304
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Twenty-five thousand years ago, sea level fell more than 400 feet below its present position as a consequence of the growth of immense ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. A dry plain stretching 1,000 miles from the Arctic Ocean to the Aleutians became exposed between northeast Asia and Alaska, and across that plain, most likely, walked the first people of the New World. This book describes what is known about these people and the now partly submerged land, named Beringia, which they settled during the final millennia of the Ice Age. Humans first occupied Beringia during a twilight period when rising sea levels had not yet caught up with warming climates. Although the land bridge between northeast Asia and Alaska was still present, warmer and wetter climates were rapidly transforming the Beringian steppe into shrub tundra. This volume synthesizes current research-some previously unpublished-on the archaeological sites and rapidly changing climates and biota of the period, suggesting that the absence of woody shrubs to help fire bone fuel may have been the barrier to earlier settlement, and that from the outset the Beringians developed a postglacial economy similar to that of later northern interior peoples. The book opens with a review of current research and the major problems and debates regarding the environment and archaeology of Beringia. It then describes Beringian environments and the controversies surrounding their interpretation; traces the evolving adaptations of early humans to the cold environments of northern Eurasia, which set the stage for the settlement of Beringia; and provides a detailed account of the archaeological record in three chapters, each of which is focused on a specific slice of time between 15,000 and 11,500 years ago. In conclusion, the authors present an interpretive summary of the human ecology of Beringia and discuss its relationship to the wider problem of the peopling of the New World.



The Improbable Primate

The Improbable Primate Author Clive Finlayson
ISBN-10 9780191503788
Release 2014-03-27
Pages 256
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Taking an ecological approach to our evolution, Clive Finlayson considers the origins of modern humans within the context of a drying climate and changing landscapes. Finlayson argues that environmental change, particularly availability of water, played a critical role in shaping the direction of human evolution, contributing to our spread and success. He argues that our ancestors carved a niche for themselves by leaving the forest and forcing their way into a long-established community of carnivores in a tropical savannah as climate changes opened up the landscape. They took their chance at high noon, when most other predators were asleep. Adapting to this new lifestyle by shedding their hair and developing an active sweating system to keep cool, being close to fresh water was vital. As the climate dried, our ancestors, already bipedal, became taller and slimmer, more adept at travelling farther in search of water. The challenges of seeking water in a drying landscape moulded the minds and bodies of early humans, and directed their migrations and eventual settlements. In this fresh and provocative view of a seven-million-year evolutionary journey, Finlayson demonstrates the radical implications for the interpretation of fossils and technologies and shows that understanding humans within an ecological context provides insights into the emergence and spread of Homo sapiens sapiens worldwide.



Ritual bones or common waste

Ritual bones or common waste Author J. Thilderkvist
ISBN-10 9789491431319
Release 2013-11-01
Pages 0
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This book addresses the problems of identifying human actions behind finds of bones in settlement archaeology, exemplified with the identification of ritual deposits. In order to formulate a methodological framework for approaching the identification of ritual deposits, different methods are tested on four Early Medieval case studysites: Dongjum and Leeuwarden, two artificial dwelling mounds situated in the then undiked salt marches of the Northern Netherlands, Midlaren, an inland settlement in Drenthe, also in the Northern Netherlands, and finally Uppåkra, a central place in the South of Sweden. The bone fragments from the four materials are studied in a five step process of definition, description, identification, interpretation and explanation. The deposits are discussed with the help of various archaeological, ethnographic and historical sources. The results of the analysis lead to a methodological framework for understanding individual deposits based on a holistic perspective where all information is regarded as potentially valuable, various methods are taken into consideration, and simplification is avoided.



The Review of Archaeology

The Review of Archaeology Author
ISBN-10 UCSC:32106019333720
Release 2001
Pages
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The Review of Archaeology has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from The Review of Archaeology also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full The Review of Archaeology book for free.



Late Pleistocene population interaction in Western Europe and modern human origins

Late Pleistocene population interaction in Western Europe and modern human origins Author Eugène Morin
ISBN-10 UOM:39015060768507
Release 2004
Pages 450
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Late Pleistocene population interaction in Western Europe and modern human origins has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Late Pleistocene population interaction in Western Europe and modern human origins also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Late Pleistocene population interaction in Western Europe and modern human origins book for free.



Journal of Iberian Archaeology

Journal of Iberian Archaeology Author
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105123082138
Release 2003
Pages
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Journal of Iberian Archaeology has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Journal of Iberian Archaeology also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Journal of Iberian Archaeology book for free.



When Neanderthals and Modern Humans Met

When Neanderthals and Modern Humans Met Author Nicholas John Conard
ISBN-10 PSU:000060656216
Release 2006
Pages 501
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When Neanderthals and Modern Humans Met has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from When Neanderthals and Modern Humans Met also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full When Neanderthals and Modern Humans Met book for free.



Ancient Food Technology

Ancient Food Technology Author Robert Irvin Curtis
ISBN-10 UVA:X004473984
Release 2001-01-01
Pages 477
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This fully documented and illustrated handbook presents an up-to-date survey of tools and technologies to process and preserve food, devised and used by ancient people in Near Eastern and Classical civilisations from the Palaeolithic period to the late Roman Empire.