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The Near Surface Layer of the Ocean

The Near Surface Layer of the Ocean Author Alexander Soloviev
ISBN-10 9781402040535
Release 2006-02-21
Pages 574
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Until the 1980s, a tacit agreement among many physical oceanographers was that nothing deserving attention could be found in the upper few meters of the ocean. The lack of adequete knowledge about the near-surface layer of the ocean was mainly due to the fact that the widely used oceanographic instruments (such as bathythermographs, CTDs, current meters, etc.) were practically useless in the upper few meters of the ocean. Interest in the ne- surface layer of the ocean rapidly increased along with the development of remote sensing techniques. The interpretation of ocean surface signals sensed from satellites demanded thorough knowledge of upper ocean processes and their connection to the ocean interior. Despite its accessibility to the investigator, the near-surface layer of the ocean is not a simple subject of experimental study. Random, sometimes huge, vertical motions of the ocean surface due to surface waves are a serious complication for collecting quality data close to the ocean surface. The supposedly minor problem of avoiding disturbances from ships’ wakes has frustrated several generations of oceanographers attempting to take reliable data from the upper few meters of the ocean. Important practical applications nevertheless demanded action, and as a result several pioneering works in the 1970s and 1980s laid the foundation for the new subject of oceanography – the near-surface layer of the ocean.



Dimensionless Physical Quantities in Science and Engineering

Dimensionless Physical Quantities in Science and Engineering Author Josef Kuneš
ISBN-10 9780124160132
Release 2012
Pages 441
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Dimensionless quantities, such as ?, e, and ? are used in mathematics, engineering, physics, and chemistry. In recent years the dimensionless groups, as demonstrated in detail here, have grown in significance and importance in contemporary mathematical and computer modeling as well as the traditional fields of physical modeling. This book offers the most comprehensive and up to date resource for dimensionless quantities, providing not only a summary of the quantities, but also a clarification of their physical principles, areas of use, and other specific properties across multiple relevant fields. Presenting the most complete and clearly explained single resource for dimensionless groups, this book will be essential for students and researchers working across the sciences. Includes approximately 1,200 dimensionless quantities Features both classic and newly developing fields Easy to use with clear organization and citations to relevant works



Ocean Waves Breaking and Marine Aerosol Fluxes

Ocean Waves Breaking and Marine Aerosol Fluxes Author Stanislaw R. Massel
ISBN-10 9780387690926
Release 2007-10-10
Pages 316
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This book fills a gap in knowledge of breaking waves and their influence on the generation of marine fluxes from ocean surfaces. Based on published data as well as on the author's experience, the text explores in detail the relationship chain of breaking waves, whitecaps coverage, rate of wave energy dissipation, amount of aerosol fluxes rising from a given sea basin, and possible seasonal variations.



Oceanic Whitecaps

Oceanic Whitecaps Author E.C. Monahan
ISBN-10 9789400946682
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 294
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Oceanic Whitecaps has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Oceanic Whitecaps also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Oceanic Whitecaps book for free.



Journal of Physical Oceanography

Journal of Physical Oceanography Author
ISBN-10 UOM:39015047886737
Release 2002
Pages
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Journal of Physical Oceanography has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Journal of Physical Oceanography also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Journal of Physical Oceanography book for free.



Climate Time Series Analysis

Climate Time Series Analysis Author Manfred Mudelsee
ISBN-10 9048194822
Release 2010-08-26
Pages 474
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Climate is a paradigm of a complex system. Analysing climate data is an exciting challenge, which is increased by non-normal distributional shape, serial dependence, uneven spacing and timescale uncertainties. This book presents bootstrap resampling as a computing-intensive method able to meet the challenge. It shows the bootstrap to perform reliably in the most important statistical estimation techniques: regression, spectral analysis, extreme values and correlation. This book is written for climatologists and applied statisticians. It explains step by step the bootstrap algorithms (including novel adaptions) and methods for confidence interval construction. It tests the accuracy of the algorithms by means of Monte Carlo experiments. It analyses a large array of climate time series, giving a detailed account on the data and the associated climatological questions. This makes the book self-contained for graduate students and researchers.



Book Catalog of the Library and Information Services Division Subject index

Book Catalog of the Library and Information Services Division  Subject index Author Environmental Science Information Center. Library and Information Services Division
ISBN-10 MINN:30000010404576
Release 1977
Pages
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The Role of Air Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling

The Role of Air Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling Author Patrick Buat-Ménard
ISBN-10 9789400947382
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 568
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This book arises from a NATO-sponsored Advanced Study Institute on 'The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling' held at [email protected]§. near Bordeaux, France. from 16 to 27 September 1985. The chapters of the book are the written versions of the lectures given at the Institute. The aim of the book is to give a comprehensive up-to-date coverage of the subject. presented in a teaching mode. The chapters contain much recent research material and attempt to give the reader an understanding of how the role of air-sea exchange in geochemical cycling can be quantitatively assessed. In the last decade, major advances in the fields of marine and atmospheric chemistry have underlined the role of physical, chemical and biological processes at and near the air-sea interface in a number of geochemical cycles (C. S, N, metals etc ... ). Further, there is strong concern over the anthropogenic perturbation of these cycles on both regional and global scales. The first part of the book (Chapters 1 to 8) provides a review of topics fundamental to such studies. These topics include concepts in geochemical modelling, assessment of atmospheric transport from sources to the oceans. description of mixing and transport processes within the ocean for both dissolved and particulate materials, quantification of air-sea fluxes for both gases and particles, photochemical transformations in the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers.



Government Reports Announcements Index

Government Reports Announcements   Index Author
ISBN-10 MINN:31951P00089959P
Release 1991
Pages
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Government Reports Announcements Index has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Government Reports Announcements Index also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Government Reports Announcements Index book for free.



DK Eyewitness Books Climate Change

DK Eyewitness Books  Climate Change Author DK Publishing
ISBN-10 9780756643515
Release 2008-06-30
Pages 72
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The most trusted nonfiction series on the market, Eyewitness Books provide an in-depth, comprehensive look at their subjects with a unique integration of words and pictures. An in-depth look at the phenomenon of global warming--what’s causing it, what it might lead to, and what we can do to fight back.



The Oceanic Thermohaline Circulation

The Oceanic Thermohaline Circulation Author Hendrik M. van Aken
ISBN-10 9780387480398
Release 2007-03-12
Pages 326
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This book presents a global hydrographic description of the thermohaline circulation, an introduction to the theoretical aspects of this phenomenon, and observational evidence for the theory. The hydrographic description and the observational evidence are based on data sources available via internet, mainly from the World Oceanographic Experiment (WOCE). The book also offers an introduction to hydrographic analysis and interpretation.



Holocene Sea level Scenarios in Bangladesh

Holocene Sea level Scenarios in Bangladesh Author Towhida Rashid
ISBN-10 9789814560993
Release 2014-01-06
Pages 78
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This Brief deals with the reconstruction of Holocene paleoenvironment in the central part of Bangladesh in relation to relative sea-level (RSL) changes which is 200 km north from the present coastline. Lithofacies characteristics, mangal peat, diatom and paleophysiographical evidences were considered to reconstruct the past position and C-14 ages were used to determine the time of formation of the relative sea-level during the Holocene. With standard reference datum the required m.s.l. at the surface of five sections are calculate and the RSL curve suggests that Bangladesh has experienced two mid Holocene RSL transgressions punctuated by regressions. The abundant marine diatom and mangrove pollens indicates that the highest RSL transgression in Bangladesh is around 6000 cal BP which is attained at least 4.5 to 5m higher than the modern m.s.l. After this phase, the relative sea-level started to fall and consequently a freshwater peat developed around 5980―5700 cal BP. The abundant mangrove pollens in salt-marsh succession shows the regression around 5500 cal BP and, the height was 1―2 m higher than the modern sea level. These and more interesting findings are discussed in this Brief.



Air Sea Exchange Physics Chemistry and Dynamics

Air Sea Exchange  Physics  Chemistry and Dynamics Author G.L. Geernaert
ISBN-10 9789401592918
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 578
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During the 1980's a wealth of information was reported from field and laboratory experiments in order to validate andlor modify various aspects of the surface layer Monin-Obukhov (M-O) similarity theory for use over the sea, and to introduce and test new concepts related to high resolution flux magnitudes and variabilities. For example, data from various field experiments conducted on the North Sea, Lake Ontario, and the Atlantic experiments, among others, yielded information on the dependence of the flux coefficients on wave state. In all field projects, the usual criteria for satisfying M-O similarity were applied. The assumptions of stationarity and homogeneity was assumed to be relevant over both small and large scales. In addition, the properties of the outer layer were assumed to be "correlated" with properties of the surface layer. These assumptions generally required that data were averaged for spatial footprints representing scales greater than 25 km (or typically 30 minutes or longer for typical windspeeds). While more and more data became available over the years, and the technology applied was more reliable, robust, and durable, the flux coefficients and other turbulent parameters still exhibited significant unexplained scatter. Since the scatter did not show sufficient reduction over the years to meet customer needs, in spite of improved technology and heavy financial investments, one could only conclude that perhaps the use of similarity theory contained too many simplifications when applied to environments which were more complicated than previously thought.



The Mediterranean a Memoir Physical Historical and Nautical by William Henry Smyth

The Mediterranean a Memoir Physical Historical and Nautical by William Henry Smyth Author William Henry Smyth
ISBN-10 IBNN:BN000616455
Release 1854
Pages 523
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The Mediterranean a Memoir Physical Historical and Nautical by William Henry Smyth has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from The Mediterranean a Memoir Physical Historical and Nautical by William Henry Smyth also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full The Mediterranean a Memoir Physical Historical and Nautical by William Henry Smyth book for free.



Waves in Oceanic and Coastal Waters

Waves in Oceanic and Coastal Waters Author Leo H. Holthuijsen
ISBN-10 9781139462525
Release 2010-02-04
Pages
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Waves in Oceanic and Coastal Waters describes the observation, analysis and prediction of wind-generated waves in the open ocean, in shelf seas, and in coastal regions with islands, channels, tidal flats and inlets, estuaries, fjords and lagoons. Most of this richly illustrated book is devoted to the physical aspects of waves. After introducing observation techniques for waves, both at sea and from space, the book defines the parameters that characterise waves. Using basic statistical and physical concepts, the author discusses the prediction of waves in oceanic and coastal waters, first in terms of generalised observations, and then in terms of the more theoretical framework of the spectral energy balance. He gives the results of established theories and also the direction in which research is developing. The book ends with a description of SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore), the preferred computer model of the engineering community for predicting waves in coastal waters.



Handbook of Micrometeorology

Handbook of Micrometeorology Author Xuhui Lee
ISBN-10 9781402022654
Release 2006-01-20
Pages 250
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The Handbook of Micrometeorology is the most up-to-date reference for micrometeorological issues and methods related to the eddy covariance technique for estimating mass and energy exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. It provides useful insight for interpreting estimates of mass and energy exchange and understanding the role of the terrestrial biosphere in global environmental change.



The Turbulent Ocean

The Turbulent Ocean Author S. A. Thorpe
ISBN-10 1139445790
Release 2005-10-27
Pages
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The subject of ocean turbulence is in a state of discovery and development with many intellectual challenges. This book describes the principal dynamic processes that control the distribution of turbulence, its dissipation of kinetic energy and its effects on the dispersion of properties such as heat, salinity, and dissolved or suspended matter in the deep ocean, the shallow coastal and the continental shelf seas. It focuses on the measurement of turbulence, and the consequences of turbulent motion in the oceanic boundary layers at the sea surface and near the seabed. Processes are illustrated by examples of laboratory experiments and field observations. The Turbulent Ocean provides an excellent resource for senior undergraduate and graduate courses, as well as an introduction and general overview for researchers. It will be of interest to all those involved in the study of fluid motion, in particular geophysical fluid mechanics, meteorology and the dynamics of lakes.