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The Organization of Action

The Organization of Action Author C.R. Gallistel
ISBN-10 9781134916306
Release 2013-09-05
Pages 432
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A synthesis of classic and modern neurobehavioral literature dealing with the principles by which complex, purposive, and intelligent behavior is generated, this book features: * papers by C.S. Sherrington, E. von Holst, D.M. Wilson, G. Fraenkel, H. Mittelstaedt, and P. Weiss * clear descriptions of three types of elementary units of behavior -- the reflex, the oscillator, and the servomechanism * a review of the diverse manifestations of hierarchical structure in the neural mechanisms underlying coordinated action. This volume has proven to be of great value to psychologists, neurobiologists, and philosophers interested in the problem of action and how it may be approached in light of modern neurobehavioral research. It has been designed for use as a supplemental text in courses in physiological psychology, neurobiology and behavior, and those courses in cognitive and developmental psychology that place particular emphasis on understanding how complex behavior patterns are implemented.



Action and Its Environments

Action and Its Environments Author Jeffrey C. Alexander
ISBN-10 0231062087
Release 1988
Pages 342
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Jeffrey Alexander, known for his work in sociological theory, breaks new ground in Action and Its Environments. The book aims to bring action theory and structure theory back together by focussing on three central questions. First, how can the normative and material properties of social structures be interlinked? Second, can the conventional, creative and strategic dimensions of individual action be related to social structures? Third, what are conditions and limits of modern social and cultural differentiation?In answering these questions Alexander portrays the complex relationship between social movements, public opinion formation, social solidarity, and social change. A new model of the structure and dynamics of cultural systems is presented as well.



Leadership

Leadership Author James G. Hunt
ISBN-10 0803937687
Release 1991-05-24
Pages 358
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Complementing other books published in the field of strategic management, Leadership emphasizes the differences in leadership requirements at multiple levels in an organization - a difference that is not just one of degree but also one of quantity. Hunt draws on stratified systems theory for the book's conceptual framework. He discusses various research strategies with a particular emphasis on time and explores practical leader training and development.



A Bible for a Thoughtful Skeptic

A Bible for a Thoughtful Skeptic Author Thom Pain
ISBN-10 9781413478853
Release 2005-02-01
Pages 344
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This book makes the case for realistic faith in the power of intelligence as opposed to blind faith in the pronouncements of those who claim infallibility or divine guidance. The author, Thom Pain, identifies the discoveries of systems and information theory early in the twentieth century as the key to a naturalistic explanation of purposeful life and intelligence and to the last stage in the emancipation of science from theology. He begins his story with the discoveries that revealed the memory mechanism as a built-in "tropisms for truth" that gave even primitive creatures a logical tool for improving their decisions and solving their problems. It is a story that reveals a surprisingly early version of intelligence and an amazing versatility in the types and range of intelligence. When one species developed symbolic languages, it becomes the story of the cultural developments of the human species. As civilization evolved, Thom identifies the rulers and the ruling classes as both the leaders and the obstacles to intellectual progress. In their new role, the rulers either claimed to be gods or the representative of the gods and often led the exploitation that had become the privilege of conquers and of the ruling classes. Indoctrinated faith and loyalty became authoritarian tools of aggression and oppression. In this cruel environment, religion also became a source of moral strength and initiative for the oppressed and religious rebels were often the leaders in the struggles for political and intellectual freedom. These struggles were not about the belief in God but about the abuses of authority by those who claimed to be the representatives of God. Thom follows this story as it sharpened the distinction between reason and theology and led to the modern concepts of democracy and personal and religious freedom.



A New Synthesis of Public Administration

A New Synthesis of Public Administration Author Jocelyne Bourgon
ISBN-10 9781553393139
Release 2011-09-26
Pages 414
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In an increasingly interconnected environment, shocks, crises, cascading failures, and surprising breakthroughs are features of our age. The ability to anticipate, intervene, innovate, and adapt is now seen as essential for governments. Public officials serve in an expanded public space that is being reshaped by the rise of social networking and modern information and communication technologies. The desired results on many public issues exceed the reach and resources of government.



Biotheology

Biotheology Author Michael Cavanaugh
ISBN-10 NWU:35556025555822
Release 1996
Pages 334
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This text synthesises modern biology with traditional religious doctrines. The sections are divided into four parts: biology; theology; biotheology in individual life; and biotheology in group life. It aims to assess the individual and social benefits of such a view



Principles of Asymmetric Synthesis

Principles of Asymmetric Synthesis Author Robert E. Gawley
ISBN-10 9780080448602
Release 2012
Pages 555
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The world is chiral. Most of the molecules in it are chiral, and asymmetric synthesis is an important means by which enantiopure chiral molecules may be obtained for study and sale. Using examples from the literature of asymmetric synthesis (more than 1300 references), the aim of this book is to present a detailed analysis of the factors that govern stereoselectivity in organic reactions. It is important to note that the references were each individually checked by the authors to verify relevance to the topics under discussion. The study of stereoselectivity has evolved from issues of diastereoselectivity, through auxiliary-based methods for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure compounds (diastereoselectivity followed by separation and auxiliary cleavage), to asymmetric catalysis. In the latter instance, enantiomers (not diastereomers) are the products, and highly selective reactions and modern purification techniques allow preparation - in a single step - of chiral substances in 99% ee for many reaction types. After an explanation of the basic physical-organic principles of stereoselectivity, the authors provide a detailed, annotated glossary of stereochemical terms. A chapter on "Analytical Methods" provides a critical overview of the most common methods for analysis of stereoisomers. The authors then follow the 'tried-and-true' format of grouping the material by reaction type. Thus, there are four chapters on carbon-carbon bond forming reactions (enolate alkylations, organometal additions to carbonyls, aldol and Michael reactions, and cycloadditions and rearrangements), one chapter on reductions and hydroborations (carbon-hydrogen bond forming reactions), and one on oxidations (carbon-oxygen and carbon-nitrogen bond forming reactions). Leading references are provided to natural product synthesis that have been accomplished using a given reaction as a key step. In addition to tables of examples that show high selectivity, a transition state analysis is presented to explain - to the current level of understanding - the stereoselectivity of each reaction. In one case (Cram's rule) the evolution of the current theory is detailed from its first tentative (1952) postulate to the current Felkin-Anh-Heathcock formalism. For other reactions, only the currently accepted rationale is presented. Examination of these rationales also exposes the weaknesses of current theories, in that they cannot always explain the experimental observations. These shortcomings provide a challenge for future mechanistic investigations. Authoritative glossary to aid understanding of stereochemical terminology Explanations of the key factors influencing stereoselectivity with numerous examples, organized by reaction type A handy reference guide to the literature of asymmetric synthesis for practitioners in the field



Predicting Human Decision Making

Predicting Human Decision Making Author Ariel Rosenfeld
ISBN-10 9781681732756
Release 2018-01-22
Pages 150
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Human decision-making often transcends our formal models of "rationality." Designing intelligent agents that interact proficiently with people necessitates the modeling of human behavior and the prediction of their decisions. In this book, we explore the task of automatically predicting human decision-making and its use in designing intelligent human-aware automated computer systems of varying natures—from purely conflicting interaction settings (e.g., security and games) to fully cooperative interaction settings (e.g., autonomous driving and personal robotic assistants). We explore the techniques, algorithms, and empirical methodologies for meeting the challenges that arise from the above tasks and illustrate major benefits from the use of these computational solutions in real-world application domains such as security, negotiations, argumentative interactions, voting systems, autonomous driving, and games. The book presents both the traditional and classical methods as well as the most recent and cutting edge advances, providing the reader with a panorama of the challenges and solutions in predicting human decision-making.



Action Theory

Action Theory Author Ladislav Valach
ISBN-10 0275970868
Release 2002
Pages 268
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Presents a theory of goal directed action, helping us see our everyday behavior in a systematic manner relevant to our lives.



Enantioselective Chemical Synthesis

Enantioselective Chemical Synthesis Author Elias J. Corey
ISBN-10 9780128001516
Release 2013-10-23
Pages 334
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Written by world-renowned and best-selling experts, Nobel Laureate E. J. Corey and Laszlo Kurti, Enantioselective Chemical Synthesis offers an authoritative and comprehensive overview of the field’s progress; the processes and tools for key formations; future development for complex, stereocontrolled (enantiomeric or diastereoisomeric) molecules; and valuable examples of multi-step syntheses. Utilizing a color-coded scheme to illustrate chemical transformations, Enantioselective Chemical Synthesis provides clear explanation and guidance through vital asymmetrical syntheses and insight into the next steps for the field. Researchers, professionals, and academics will benefit from this valuable, thorough, and unique resource. In Part I, the authors present clearly, comprehensively and concisely the most useful enantioselective processes available to synthetic chemists. Part II provides an extensive discussion of the most logical ways to apply these new enantioselective methods to the planning of syntheses of stereochemically complex molecules. This hitherto neglected area is essential for the advancement of enantioselective synthesis to a more rational and powerful level. Part III describes in detail many reaction sequences which have been used successfully for the construction of a wide variety of complex target molecules Clearly explains stereochemical synthesis in theory and practice Provides a handy tool box for scientists wishing to understand and apply chiral chemical synthesis Describes almost 50 real life examples of asymmetric synthesis in practice and examines how the chiral centers were introduced at key synthetic stages



Exposing the Magic of Design

Exposing the Magic of Design Author Jon Kolko
ISBN-10 9780199780952
Release 2011-03-07
Pages 208
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Design synthesis is a way of thinking about complicated, multifaceted problems of a large scale with a repeatable degree of success. Design synthesis methods can be applied in business, with the goal of producing new and compelling products and services, and they can be applied in government, with the goal of changing culture and bettering society. In both contexts, however, there is a need for speed and for aggressive action. This text is immediately relevant, and is more relevant than ever, as we acknowledge and continually reference a feeling of an impending and massive change. Simply, this text is intended to act as a practitioner's guide to exposing the magic of design.



Engineering and Social Justice

Engineering and Social Justice Author Caroline Baillie
ISBN-10 9781557536068
Release 2012
Pages 209
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An increasing number of researchers and educators in the field of engineering wish to integrate considerations of social justice into their work and practice. In this volume, an international team of authors, from a range of disciplinary backgrounds, invite scholars to think and teach in new ways that acknowledge the social, as well as technical, impact engineering can have on our world and that open possibilities for social justice movements to help shape engineering and technology. The book examines three areas of an engineering academic's professional role: teaching, research, and community engagement. The contributors take a broad social and ecological justice perspective to critique existing practices and explore alternatives. The result is a handbook for all scholars of engineering who think beyond the technical elements of their field, and an essential reader for anyone who believes in the transformative power of the discipline.



The New Synthesis of Public Administration Fieldbook

The New Synthesis of Public Administration Fieldbook Author Jocelyne Bourgon
ISBN-10 8771585826
Release 2017
Pages 287
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"NS is a conceptual framework that resonates with practitioners, but it is also a tool that can be used to expand the range of options open to government and bring coherence to problem solving and decision making. In the hands of practitioners, NS was becoming a process of discovery to create solutions to problems of concern to society and produce results of increasing public value. Chapter 1 explores what is different about serving in the 21st century compared to the previous century. Periodically, changes come about that transform the world we live in, and in the process, transform the role of government. This chapter argues that we live in such a time. Chapter 2 posits that conventional thinking about public administration and current practices are insufficient to guide the actions and decisions of government in a world characterized by deep uncertainty. Chapter 3 introduces the NS Framework and its concepts. The framework brings together the role played by government, multiple agents in society and citizens in a way that opens up a vast range of choices to government in its search for solutions to real life challenges. The framework offers a dynamic perspective of public administration where governments are able to learn, adapt to changing needs and circumstances, and co-evolve with society. Part II is an introduction to NS as an applied process of discovery. It describes the steps that public sector leaders have found most useful for discovering pathways to a better future. Chapter 4, 5, 6 and 7 present what has been learned from the practitioners who have used the NS Framework to lead public sector transformation initiatives. The NS Framework does not provide answers; it opens up new lines of inquiry and integrates findings in ways that generate coherent narratives of change. A number of consequences flow from a dynamic view of the role of government in society. This includes an adaptive view of the interaction between the public, private and civic spheres of life in society, a deeper appreciation of the importance of civic results and the role of citizens in building governable societies. The way we think about government or democratic governance influences the actions that will be taken for their improvement, and what results will be achieved. Part III poses difficult yet fundamental questions concerning how to re-conceptualise the responsibilities of the State in the 21st century. Chapter 8 broadens the conversation about public innovation. Chapter 9 reframes the discussion on public sector leadership, and Chapter 10 opens a conversation on the need to re-think, re-frame and re-invent the functioning of modern democratic societies. The book includes four case studies from four different countries that exemplify NS concepts in practice. Each of the cases highlights a dynamic process of discovery focussing on public purpose, building on the strength of others and empowering citizens as problem solvers. Appendix A examines the transformation of Singapore's prisons from correctional facilities to centres contributing to the successful reintegration of ex-offenders. Appendix B provides an example of leveraging to improve care to children with complex diseases in Canada. Appendix C explores how co-creation and co-production were used to respond to challenges facing elder care in Fredericia, Denmark. Appendix D provides an account of the Helsinki Cleaning Day initiative and how self-organisation with support from other actors, including the public sector, can spark new ways of doing things."--



Awesomely Simple

Awesomely Simple Author John Spence
ISBN-10 9781458731913
Release 2011-03-03
Pages 256
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The six core strategies to elevate any business-and how to implement them-made simple What do the world's most successful companies and organization have in common? And what can you actually take away and use from their examples? Distilling the best fundamental business strategies, trusted advisor and strategist John Spence helps you take a hard look at your business and together develop specific plans and action steps that will allow you to dramatically improve the success of your company. Delivered in Spence's approachable and straightforward manner, Awesomely Simple reveals the six key strategies that create a foundation for achieving business excellence: Vivid Vision, Best People, A Performance-Oriented Culture, Robust Communication, A Sense of Urgency, and Extreme Customer Focus. Filled with case studies and clear action items, includes easy-to-follow guidelines for implementing the strategies in any organization no matter its mission or size After concisely breaking down each strategy, Spence gives specific examples, tips, tools, discussion questions and exercises for how to execute them successfully A perfect resource for business leaders, Awesomely Simple will help you turn ideas into positive action and achieve lasting business success.



Brain Arousal and Information Theory

Brain Arousal and Information Theory Author Donald W PFAFF
ISBN-10 0674019202
Release 2006
Pages 205
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In Brain Arousal and Information Theory, Donald Pfaff presents a daring perspective on the long-standing puzzle of what arousal is. Pfaff argues that, beneath our mental functions and emotional dispositions, a primitive neuronal system governs arousal. Employing the simple but powerful framework of information theory, Pfaff revolutionizes our understanding of arousal systems in the brain.



Notes on the Synthesis of Form

Notes on the Synthesis of Form Author Christopher Alexander
ISBN-10 0674627512
Release 1964
Pages 216
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"These notes are about the process of design: the process of inventing things which display new physical order, organization, form, in response to function." This book, opening with these words, presents an entirely new theory of the process of design. In the first part of the book, Mr. Alexander discusses the process by which a form is adapted to the context of human needs and demands that has called it into being. He shows that such an adaptive process will be successful only if it proceeds piecemeal instead of all at once. It is for this reason that forms from traditional unselfconscious cultures, molded not by designers but by the slow pattern of changes within tradition, are so beautifully organized and adapted. When the designer, in our own self-conscious culture, is called on to create a form that is adapted to its context he is unsuccessful, because the preconceived categories out of which he builds his picture of the problem do not correspond to the inherent components of the problem, and therefore lead only to the arbitrariness, willfulness, and lack of understanding which plague the design of modern buildings and modern cities. In the second part, Mr. Alexander presents a method by which the designer may bring his full creative imagination into play, and yet avoid the traps of irrelevant preconception. He shows that, whenever a problem is stated, it is possible to ignore existing concepts and to create new concepts, out of the structure of the problem itself, which do correspond correctly to what he calls the subsystems of the adaptive process. By treating each of these subsystems as a separate subproblem, the designer can translate the new concepts into form. The form, because of the process, will be well-adapted to its context, non-arbitrary, and correct. The mathematics underlying this method, based mainly on set theory, is fully developed in a long appendix. Another appendix demonstrates the application of the method to the design of an Indian village.



Behavioral Evolution and Integrative Levels

Behavioral Evolution and Integrative Levels Author G. Greenberg
ISBN-10 9781317768883
Release 2014-05-22
Pages 320
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First published in 1984. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.