Download or read online books in PDF, EPUB and Mobi Format. Click Download or Read Online button to get book now. This site is like a library, Use search box in the widget to get ebook that you want.

The Policing Web

The Policing Web Author Jean-Paul Brodeur
ISBN-10 0199813310
Release 2010-09-30
Pages 416
Download Link Click Here

Nearly all research devoted to policing focuses on public uniformed police and their legal use of force. An overwhelming amount of this work draws on evidence from Anglo-American police forces. These twin emphases have led to a limited view. Agencies such as criminal investigation units, intelligence services, private security companies, and military policing organizations have almost entirely escaped scholarly attention. In The Policing Web, Jean-Paul Brodeur looks at policing as a whole. He illuminates its full diversity, showing how it extends far beyond the confines of public police working in uniform and visible to all. Brodeur considers military policing, both when it complements the values of democracy and when it does not. He also discusses criminal individuals acting as police informants, and criminal organizations enforcing their own rules in urban zones deserted by the police. Brodeur argues that the diverse strands of the policing web are united by a common definition that emphasizes the license granted to policing agencies-legally or with impunity- to use means otherwise forbidden to the rest of the population. Employing an international and comparative approach, Brodeur establishes a comprehensive model that links all the components of policing. The policing web, however, is not a neat and well-integrated structure. There is not just one policing web. There are several, depending on the country, police history and culture, and the various public images of policing. These often overlooked factors are essential components of the context of policing. Wide-ranging and authoritative, The Policing Web expands the very idea of what policing is and how it works, and presents a novel yet fundamental understanding of law enforcement.



Crime and Public Policy

Crime and Public Policy Author James Q. Wilson
ISBN-10 9780195399363
Release 2011-01-25
Pages 644
Download Link Click Here

Crime and Public Policy accessibly presents the latest scientific information on the causes of crime and evidence about what does and does not work to control it. With contributions from trusted, leading scholars, on topics such as changing crime rates, sex offenders, sentencing, gangs, and more, James Q. Wilson and Joan Petersilia continue to offer the most comprehensive and balanced guide to how the latest and best social science research informs the understanding of crime and its control for policymakers, community leaders, and students of crime and criminal justice.



Police for the Future

Police for the Future Author David H. Bayley
ISBN-10 0195355806
Release 1996-03-07
Pages 187
Download Link Click Here

Police do not and cannot prevent crime. This alarming thesis is explored by David Bayley, one of the most prolific and internationally renowned authorities on criminal justice and policing, in Police for the Future. Providing a systematic assessment of the performance of the police institution as a whole in preventing crime, the study is based on exhaustive research, interviews, and first hand observation in five countries--Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Japan, and the United States. It analyzes what police are accomplishing in modern democratic societies, and asks whether police organizations are using their resources effectively to prevent crime. Bayley assesses the impediments to effective crime prevention, describes the most promising reforms currently being tested by the police, and analyzes the choices that modern societies have with respect to creating truly effective police forces. He concludes with a blueprint for the creation of police forces that can live up to their promise to reduce crime and enhance public safety. Written for both the general public and the specialist in criminal justice, Police for the Future offers a unique multinational perspective on one of society's most basic institutions.



Policing Problem Places

Policing Problem Places Author Anthony Allan Braga
ISBN-10 9780195341966
Release 2010
Pages 299
Download Link Click Here

In recent years, crime scholars and practitioners have pointed to the potential benefits of focusing crime prevention efforts on crime places. A number of studies suggest that crime is not spread evenly across city landscapes. Rather, there is significant clustering of crime in small places, or "hot spots," that generate a vastly disproportionate number of criminal events. Even within the most crime-ridden neighborhoods, crime clusters at a few discrete locations and other areas are relatively crime free. A number of researchers have argued that many crime problems can be addressed more efficiently if police officers focus their attention on these deviant places. The appeal of focusing limited resources on a small number of high-activity crime places is straightforward. If crime can be prevented at these problem places, then police will be well positioned to lower citywide crime rates. In Policing Problem Places, Anthony A. Braga and David L. Weisburd make the case that hotspots policing is an effective approach to crime prevention that should be engaged by police departments in the United States and other countries. There is a strong and growing body of rigorous scientific evidence that the police can control crime hot spots without simply displacing crime problems to other places. Indeed, putting police officers in high crime locations is an old and well-established idea. However, the age and popularity of this idea does not necessarily mean that it is being done properly. Police officers should strive to use problem-oriented policing and situational crime prevention techniques to address the place dynamics, situations, and characteristics that cause a "spot" to be "hot." Braga and Weisburd further suggest that the strategies used to police problem places can have more or less desirable effects on police-community relations. Particularly in minority neighborhoods where residents have long suffered from elevated crime problems and historically poorpolice service, police officers should make an effort to develop positive and collaborative relationships with residents and not engage strategies that will undermine the legitimacy of police agencies, such as indiscriminant enforcement tactics. This book argues that it is time for police departments to shift away from a focus on catching criminal offenders and move towards dealing with crime at problem places as a central crime prevention strategy.



The Great American Crime Decline

The Great American Crime Decline Author Franklin E. Zimring
ISBN-10 9780199702534
Release 2008-11-05
Pages 272
Download Link Click Here

Many theories--from the routine to the bizarre--have been offered up to explain the crime decline of the 1990s. Was it record levels of imprisonment? An abatement of the crack cocaine epidemic? More police using better tactics? Or even the effects of legalized abortion? And what can we expect from crime rates in the future? Franklin E. Zimring here takes on the experts, and counters with the first in-depth portrait of the decline and its true significance. The major lesson from the 1990s is that relatively superficial changes in the character of urban life can be associated with up to 75% drops in the crime rate. Crime can drop even if there is no major change in the population, the economy or the schools. Offering the most reliable data available, Zimring documents the decline as the longest and largest since World War II. It ranges across both violent and non-violent offenses, all regions, and every demographic. All Americans, whether they live in cities or suburbs, whether rich or poor, are safer today. Casting a critical and unerring eye on current explanations, this book demonstrates that both long-standing theories of crime prevention and recently generated theories fall far short of explaining the 1990s drop. A careful study of Canadian crime trends reveals that imprisonment and economic factors may not have played the role in the U.S. crime drop that many have suggested. There was no magic bullet but instead a combination of factors working in concert rather than a single cause that produced the decline. Further--and happily for future progress, it is clear that declines in the crime rate do not require fundamental social or structural changes. Smaller shifts in policy can make large differences. The significant reductions in crime rates, especially in New York, where crime dropped twice the national average, suggests that there is room for other cities to repeat this astounding success. In this definitive look at the great American crime decline, Franklin E. Zimring finds no pat answers but evidence that even lower crime rates might be in store.



American Youth Violence

American Youth Violence Author Franklin E. Zimring
ISBN-10 9780195140637
Release 2000-10-19
Pages 224
Download Link Click Here

This is the definitive examination of adolescent violence in the United States as both a social phenomenon and a policy problem. Franklin Zimring, one of America's most esteemed scholars of law and crime, scrutinized criminal statistics and demographic trends. The result is a thorough debunking of Congressional predictions of 'a coming storm of juvenile violence' and the half-baked policy proposals that accompany such warnings. The book sets forth comprehensive and dispassionate analyses of three key areas of youth violence policy: adolescent firearms possession and use, standards for transfer from juvenile to criminal court jurisdiction, and legal sanctions for adolescents who kill. Throughout American Youth Violence, the core issues of youth violence in the 1990s are examined with an unprecedented degree of analytic rigour. Zimring also offers an appropriate set of responses to youth violence that are consistent with a positive future for the juvenile court and for American youth.



The City That Became Safe

The City That Became Safe Author Franklin E. Zimring
ISBN-10 9780199324163
Release 2013-11
Pages 272
Download Link Click Here

Discusses many of the ways that New York City dropped its crime rate between the years of 1991 and 2000.



Punishing Race

Punishing Race Author Michael H. Tonry
ISBN-10 9780199751372
Release 2011
Pages 204
Download Link Click Here

How can it be in a nation that elected Barack Obama that a third of young black men are controlled by the justice system, and black men are seven times likelier than white to be in prison? Michael Tonry demonstrates in lucid, accessible language that these patterns result primarily from drug and crime control policies that disproportionately affect black Americans. These policies in turn result from a lack of white empathy for black people and from racial stereotypes and resentments provoked partly by the Republican Southern Strategy of appealing to white voters through use of coded appeals to race. The white majority, Tonry observes, has a remarkable capacity to endure the suffering of disadvantaged black and, increasingly, Hispanic men. The criminal justice system is the latest in a series of devices, including slavery, Jim Crow, and legally countenanced discrimination, that have maintained white dominance over black people. Tonry pushes for overdue - and realistic - changesin racial profiling and sentencing, and to the War on Drugs, to reduce their staggering human and social costs.



Crime

Crime Author James Q. Wilson
ISBN-10 UOM:39015053519917
Release 2002
Pages 705
Download Link Click Here

Crime has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Crime also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Crime book for free.



Governing Through Crime

Governing Through Crime Author Jonathan Simon
ISBN-10 9780195181081
Release 2007-02-03
Pages 330
Download Link Click Here

Across America today gated communities sprawl out from urban centers, employers enforce mandatory drug testing, and schools screen students with metal detectors. Social problems ranging from welfare dependency to educational inequality have been reconceptualized as crimes, with an attendant focus on assigning fault and imposing consequences. Even before the recent terrorist attacks, non-citizen residents had become subject to an increasingly harsh regime of detention and deportation, and prospective employees subjected to background checks. How and when did our everyday world become dominated by fear, every citizen treated as a potential criminal?In this startlingly original work, Jonathan Simon traces this pattern back to the collapse of the New Deal approach to governing during the 1960s when declining confidence in expert-guided government policies sent political leaders searching for new models of governance. The War on Crime offered a ready solution to their problem: politicians set agendas by drawing analogies to crime and redefined the ideal citizen as a crime victim, one whose vulnerabilities opened the door to overweening government intervention. By the 1980s, this transformation of the core powers of government had spilled over into the institutions that govern daily life. Soon our schools, our families, our workplaces, and our residential communities were being governed through crime.This powerful work concludes with a call for passive citizens to become engaged partners in the management of risk and the treatment of social ills. Only by coming together to produce security, can we free ourselves from a logic of domination by others, and from the fear that currently rules our everyday life.



Mafia Brotherhoods

Mafia Brotherhoods Author Letizia Paoli
ISBN-10 9780199705092
Release 2008-06-01
Pages 312
Download Link Click Here

Relying on previously undisclosed confessions of former mafia members now cooperating with the police, Letizia Paoli provides a clinically accurate portrait of mafia behavior, motivations, and structure in Italy. The mafia, Paoli demonstrates, are essentially multifunctional ritual brotherhoods focused above all on retaining and consolidating their local political power base. A truly interdisciplinary work of history, politics, economics, and sociology, Mafia Brotherhoods reveals in dramatic detail the true face of one of the world's most mythologized criminal organizations.



Street Gang Patterns and Policies

Street Gang Patterns and Policies Author Malcolm W. Klein
ISBN-10 9780199890101
Release 2010-04-12
Pages 320
Download Link Click Here

In the past two decades, many prevention and suppression programs have been initiated on a national and local level to combat street gangs--but what do we really know about them? Why do youths join them? Why do they proliferate? Street Gang Patterns and Policies is a crucial update and critical examination of our understanding of gangs and major gang-control programs across the nation. Often perceived solely as an urban issue, street gangs are also a suburban and rural dilemma. Klein and Maxson focus on gang proliferation, migration, and crime patterns, and highlight known risk factors that lead to youths form and join gangs within communities. Dispelling the long-standing assumptions that the public, the media, and law enforcement have about street gangs, they present a comprehensive overview of how gangs are organized and structured. The authors assess the major gang programs across the nation and argue that existing prevention, intervention, and suppression methods targeting individuals, groups, and communities, have been largely ineffective. Klein and Maxson close by offering valuable policy guidelines for practitioners on how to intervene and control gangs more successfully. Filling an important gap in the literature on street gangs and social control, this book is a must-read for criminologists, social workers, policy makers, and criminal justice practitioners.



The Politics of the Police

The Politics of the Police Author Robert Reiner
ISBN-10 9780199283392
Release 2010-03-04
Pages 319
Download Link Click Here

This fourth edition of Robert Reiner's popular and highly-acclaimed text contains substantial revisions, to take into account the recent and profound changes in the law, policy and organisation of policing.



Police and Community in Chicago

Police and Community in Chicago Author Wesley G. Skogan
ISBN-10 0195154584
Release 2006
Pages 344
Download Link Click Here

In the early 1990s, Chicago, the nation's third largest city, instituted the nation's largest community policing initiative. Wesley G. Skogan here provides the first comprehensive evaluation of that citywide program, examining its impact on crime, neighborhood residents, and the police. Based on the results of a thirteen-year study, including interviews, citywide surveys, and sophisticated statistical analyses, Police and Community in Chicago reveals a city divided among African-Americans, Whites, and Latinos. Each faced distinctive problems when community policing came to Chicago in 1993, and during the next decade the three communities took different routes. There were tremendous improvements in the citys predominately African-American districts, where crime and fear dropped the most. The city's largely white neighborhoods were already solidly behind the police, yet they too registered significant gains. Under pressure from immigration, the Latino population cleaved in two with predominately Spanish-speaking areas falling behind on multiple measures of crime, disorder and neighborhood decay. Immigration will only continue to grow both in Chicago and around the world. Skogan thus concludes his pathbreaking work with a challenge for the future: more effective ways of responding to the problems facing the city's newest immigrants must now be found.



Children of the Prison Boom

Children of the Prison Boom Author Sara Wakefield
ISBN-10 9780199989225
Release 2014-01
Pages 231
Download Link Click Here

Children of the Prison Boom describes the devastating effects of America's experiment in mass incarceration for a generation of vulnerable children. Wakefield and Wildeman find that parental imprisonment leads to increased mental health and behavioral problems, infant mortality, and child homelessness which translate into large-scale increases in racial inequality.



Gun Violence

Gun Violence Author Philip J. Cook
ISBN-10 9780195153842
Release 2002
Pages 258
Download Link Click Here

"The first effort to make a comprehensive estimate of the price the nation pays for criminal shootings, gun accidents, and suicides committed with guns."--New York Times "Progress begins on social problems when it becomes possible to measure them. In that spirit come Professors Cook and Ludwig with this exceptional contribution."--Daniel Patrick Moynihan



The Contradictions of American Capital Punishment

The Contradictions of American Capital Punishment Author Franklin E. Zimring
ISBN-10 9780190292379
Release 2004-11-18
Pages 272
Download Link Click Here

Why does the United States continue to employ the death penalty when fifty other developed democracies have abolished it? Why does capital punishment become more problematic each year? How can the death penalty conflict be resolved? In The Contradictions of American Capital Punishment, Frank Zimring reveals that the seemingly insoluble turmoil surrounding the death penalty reflects a deep and long-standing division in American values, a division that he predicts will soon bring about the end of capital punishment in our country. On the one hand, execution would seem to violate our nation's highest legal principles of fairness and due process. It sets us increasingly apart from our allies and indeed is regarded by European nations as a barbaric and particularly egregious form of American exceptionalism. On the other hand, the death penalty represents a deeply held American belief in violent social justice that sees the hangman as an agent of local control and safeguard of community values. Zimring uncovers the most troubling symptom of this attraction to vigilante justice in the lynch mob. He shows that the great majority of executions in recent decades have occurred in precisely those Southern states where lynchings were most common a hundred years ago. It is this legacy, Zimring suggests, that constitutes both the distinctive appeal of the death penalty in the United States and one of the most compelling reasons for abolishing it. Impeccably researched and engagingly written, Contradictions in American Capital Punishment casts a clear new light on America's long and troubled embrace of the death penalty.