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The Root Canal Biofilm

The Root Canal Biofilm Author Luis E. Chávez de Paz
ISBN-10 9783662474150
Release 2015-10-20
Pages 366
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This book presents the current state of research on the basic scientific aspects of root canal biofilm biology within a clinically applicable context. Root canal biofilms are complex polymicrobial structures adhering to the root canal surface that are formed by microorganisms invading the pulpal space of teeth, and are associated with persistent root canal infections. Concerted efforts to study root canal biofilms have been made in the past decade, resulting in the publication of observational and experimental studies that detail the morphology and biology of these structures in infected root canals. In addition to confirming that bacteria in root canals do not exist in free-floating planktonic states as previously assumed, this new information on root canal biofilm infections has provided an opportunity to re-evaluate conventional clinical protocols and improve endodontic therapeutic measures.



The Biofilm Primer

The Biofilm Primer Author J. William Costerton
ISBN-10 9783540680222
Release 2007-03-06
Pages 199
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This book details the widely accepted hypothesis that the majority of bacteria in virtually all ecosystems grow in matrix-enclosed biofilms. The author, who first proposed this biofilm hypothesis, uses direct evidence from microscopy and from molecular techniques, arguing cogently for moving beyond conventional culture methods that dominated microbiology in the last century. Bacteria grow predominantly in biofilms in natural, engineered, and pathogenic ecosystems; this book provides a solid basis for the understanding of bacterial processes in environmental, industrial, agricultural, dental and medical microbiology. Using a unique "ecological" perspective, the author explores the commensal and pathogenic colonization of human organ systems.



Textbook of Endodontology

Textbook of Endodontology Author Lars Bjørndal
ISBN-10 9781119057321
Release 2018-05-11
Pages 504
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The third edition of Textbook of Endodontology provides lucid scholarship and clear discussion of endodontic principles and treatment to dental students and dental practitioners searching for current information on endodontic theories and techniques. Completely revised and updated new edition Features six new chapters Provides pedagogical features to promote understanding Includes clinical case studies to put the information in the clinical context Illustrated in full color throughout with clinical images and detailed diagrams Offers interactive multiple-choice questions on a companion website



The Role of Biofilms in Device Related Infections

The Role of Biofilms in Device Related Infections Author Mark E. Shirtliff
ISBN-10 9783540681199
Release 2008-12-19
Pages 272
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Approximately 60% of all hospital-associated infections, over one million cases per year, are due to biofilms that have formed on indwelling medical devices. Device-related biofilm infections increase hospital stays and add over one billion dollars/year to U.S. hospitalization costs. Since the use and the types of indwelling medical devices commonly used in modern healthcare are continuously expanding, especially with an aging population, the incidence of biofilm infections will also continue to rise. The central problem with microbial biofilm infections of foreign bodies is their propensity to resist clearance by the host immune system and all antimicrobial agents tested to date. In fact, compared to their free floating, planktonic counterparts, microbes within a biofilm are 50 – 500 times more resistant to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, achieving therapeutic and non-lethal dosing regimens within the human host is impossible. The end result is a conversion from an acute infection to one that is persistent, chronic, and recurrent, most often requiring device removal in order to eliminate the infection. This text will describe the major types of device-related infections, and will explain the host, pathogen, and the unique properties of their interactions in order to gain a better understanding of these recalcitrant infections.



Endodontic Irrigation

Endodontic Irrigation Author Bettina Basrani
ISBN-10 9783319164564
Release 2015-07-17
Pages 316
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This book reviews the available information on bacterial disinfection in endodontics, with emphasis on the chemical treatment of root canals based on current understanding of the process of irrigation. It describes recent advances in knowledge of the chemistry associated with irrigants and delivery systems, which is of vital importance given that chemical intervention is now considered one of the most important measures in eliminating planktonic microbes and biofilms from the infected tooth. Recommendations are made regarding concentrations, exposure times and optimal sequences. Possible complications related to the use of the different solutions are highlighted, with guidance on response. In addition, clinical protocols are suggested on the basis of both clinical experience and the results of past and ongoing research. Throughout, a practical, clinically oriented approach is adopted that will assist the practitioner in ensuring successful endodontic treatment.



Control of Biofilm Infections by Signal Manipulation

Control of Biofilm Infections by Signal Manipulation Author Naomi Balaban
ISBN-10 3540738533
Release 2007-11-28
Pages 175
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The number of patients affected by and dying from what can be considered as a "biofilm disease" is higher than heart disease and cancer combined. Thus, this is a hugely important work that describes the molecular mechanisms of cell-to-cell communication among bacterial cells in a biofilm, the development of antibiofilm inhibitors such as quorum-sensing inhibitors, and the use of biofilm inhibitors to prevent and treat bacterial infections in humans and other animals.



Antibiofilm Agents

Antibiofilm Agents Author Kendra P. Rumbaugh
ISBN-10 9783642538339
Release 2014-05-08
Pages 497
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This book provides a survey of recent advances in the development of antibiofilm agents for clinical and environmental applications. The fact that microbes exist in structured communities called biofilms has slowly become accepted within the medical community. We now know that over 80% of all infectious diseases are biofilm-related; however, significant challenges still lie in our ability to diagnose and treat these extremely recalcitrant infections. Written by experts from around the globe, this book offers a valuable resource for medical professionals seeking to treat biofilm-related disease, academic and industry researchers interested in drug discovery and instructors who teach courses on microbial pathogenesis and medical microbiology.



Lasers in Endodontics

Lasers in Endodontics Author Giovanni Olivi
ISBN-10 9783319193274
Release 2016-03-15
Pages 298
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This book offers up-to-date information on all aspects of the use of lasers in endodontics, focusing especially on the various laser applications, including primary and permanent root canal therapies, retreatments, apical surgery and pulp therapy. Every laser technique used in endodontics is carefully described and illustrated, with detailed coverage of both conventional methods and more recent developments such as laser-activated irrigation and photon-induced photoacoustic streaming. In addition, a separate section addresses the basic science of laser dentistry, explaining the physics, describing laser–tissue interactions, and discussing different types of laser. Extensive reference is made to the international literature in order to provide the reader with a clear, evidence-based understanding of the merits of various approaches. In offering a balanced mix of descriptions of clinical applications, clinical data, scientific research and logical criticism, the book will serve as an excellent reference for a wide audience comprising general dentists as well as specialists.



Handbook for Azospirillum

Handbook for Azospirillum Author Fabricio Dario Cassán
ISBN-10 9783319065427
Release 2015-04-29
Pages 514
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The functional analysis of plant-microbe interactions has re-emerged in the past 10 years due to spectacular advances in integrative study models. This book summarizes basic and technical information related to the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) belonging to the genus Azospirillum, considered to be one of the most representative PGPR last 40 years. We include exhaustive information about the general microbiology of genus Azospirillum, their identification strategies; the evaluation of plant growth promoting mechanisms, inoculants technology and agronomic use of these bacteria and some special references to the genetic technology and use.



Biofilm Highlights

Biofilm Highlights Author Hans-Curt Flemming
ISBN-10 3642199402
Release 2011-08-02
Pages 244
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Living in biofilms is the common way of life of microorganisms, transiently immobilized in their matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), interacting in many ways and using the matrix as an external digestion and protection system. This is how they have organized their life in the environment, in the medical context and in technical systems – and has helped make them the oldest, most successful and ubiquitous form of life. In this book, hot spots in current biofilm research are presented in critical and sometimes provocative chapters. This serves a twofold purpose: to provide an overview and to inspire further discussions. Above all, the book seeks to stimulate lateral thinking.



Disinfection of Root Canal Systems

Disinfection of Root Canal Systems Author Nestor Cohenca
ISBN-10 9781118828618
Release 2014-06-18
Pages 320
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Clean root canal systems are essential for successful endodontic treatment. With contributions from leading endodontists from around the world, Dr. Nestor Cohenca here presents the etiology of endodontic disease caused by the endodontic biofilm and all therapies available to predictably disinfect the root canal system, thus increasing successful endodontic outcomes. Disinfection of Root Canal Systems: The Treatment of Apical Periodontitis is an evidence-based manual that describes root canal anatomy, the endodontic biofilm, and the role of disinfection before presenting the most up-to-date methods of irrigation and disinfection. Individual chapters are devoted to each method, such as positive pressure irrigation, apical negative pressure irrigation, sonic activation, photodynamic therapy, laser technology, and ozonization and electrochemical activation. Clinical photographs throughout show proper irrigation and disinfection techniques.



Plasma for Bio Decontamination Medicine and Food Security

Plasma for Bio Decontamination  Medicine and Food Security Author Zdenko Machala
ISBN-10 9789400728516
Release 2012-02-05
Pages 479
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Non-thermal (cold) plasmas at atmospheric pressure have recently found many breakthrough applications in biology, medicine, and food security. Plasmas can efficiently kill bacteria, yeasts, moulds, spores, biofilms and other hazardous microorganisms, including potential bio-terrorism agents. They can be employed for bio-decontamination and sterilization of surfaces, medical instruments, water, air, food, even of living tissues without causing their damage. Direct or indirect plasma interaction with living cells of microorganisms or even humans enables novel bio-medical applications, e.g. treatment of skin diseases and ulcers. Plasma-enhanced blood coagulation coupled with its antiseptic properties proved success in wound healing and opens new possibilities in surgery, emergency medicine and military applications. Plasma treatment allows cell manipulations, their removal and targeted transfer into the injured area, which can accelerate wound healing. Plasma induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) of tumor cells brings forth a great potential for cancer treatment. Besides, plasma enables painless treatment of dental caries, root canal disinfection, and other dentistry applications. This book is a selection of reviewed manuscripts issuing from the NATO Advanced Research Workshop Plasma for bio-decontamination, medicine and food security held in Jasná, Slovakia, on 15-18 March 2011. It provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge and research activities focused at the plasma applications in areas such as bio-decontamination, water chemistry, effects on cells; biofilm inactivation, UV sterilization, and medicine, especially tissue treatment and wound healing, as well as dentistry and food security.



Microbial Strategies for Crop Improvement

Microbial Strategies for Crop Improvement Author Mohammad Saghir Khan
ISBN-10 364201979X
Release 2009-08-25
Pages 358
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With an ever-increasing human population, the demand placed upon the agriculture sector to supply more food is one of the greatest challenges for the agrarian community. In order to meet this challenge, environmentally unfriendly agroch- icals have played a key role in the green revolution and are even today commonly recommended to circumvent nutrient de?ciencies of the soils. The use of ag- chemicals is, though, a major factor for improvement of plant production; it causes a profound deteriorating effect on soil health (soil fertility) and in turn negatively affects the productivity and sustainability of crops. Concern over disturbance to the microbial diversity and consequently soil fertility (as these microbes are involved in biogeochemical processes), as well as economic constraints, have prompted fun- mental and applied research to look for new agro-biotechnologies that can ensure competitive yields by providing suf?ciently not only essential nutrients to the plants but also help to protect the health of soils by mitigating the toxic effects of certain pollutants. In this regard, the role of naturally abundant yet functionally fully unexplored microorganisms such as biofertilizers assume a special signi?cance in the context of supplementing plant nutrients, cost and environmental impact under both conventional practices and derelict environments. Therefore, current devel- ments in sustainability involve a rational exploitation of soil microbial communities and the use of inexpensive, though less bio-available, sources of plant nutrients, which may be made available to plants by microbially-mediated processes.



Aquatic Biofilms

Aquatic Biofilms Author Helena Guasch Anna M. Romani
ISBN-10 9781910190180
Release 2016-01-15
Pages 242
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Biofilms in aquatic ecosystems colonize various surfaces (sand, rocks, leaves) and play a key role in the environment. Aquatic biofilms supply energy and organic matter to the food chain, they are important in recycling organic matter and contribute to water quality. This book is a concise review of the current knowledge on aquatic biofilms with an emphasis on the characteristics and ecology of biofilms in natural ecosystems and a focus on biofilm applications linked to water pollution problems. The volume is divided into three sections: Biofilms Mode of Life; Biofilms and Pollution; and New Technologies using Biofilms. In the first section the aquatic biofilm mode of life is described and reviewed. Key aspects covered include the three-dimensional structure and cell to cell communication of biofilms, their dynamic prokaryotic diversity and their vital role in biogeochemical cycles. In the second part of the book the use of biofilms in water quality is comprehensively covered. Chapters discuss biofilms in water quality, environmental risk assessment, monitoring and ecotoxicological approaches. Further topics include biofilm development in sewage pipes and the potential for microbial transformations in these systems. The final section focuses on important examples of novel technologies based on biofilms for water treatment, including the biodegradation of pollutants, the application of bioelectrogenic biofilms, and the biofilm capacity for nitrogen removal. With contributions from ecologists, engineers and microbiologists this book presents scientists and technicians with up-to-date knowledge and a clear understanding of aquatic biofilms from different and complementary points of view. An essential reference book for anyone working with biofilms.



Morphogenesis and Pathogenicity in Fungi

Morphogenesis and Pathogenicity in Fungi Author José Pérez Martín
ISBN-10 9783642229152
Release 2012-01-07
Pages 286
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Infectious fungal diseases continue to take their toll in terms of human suffering and enormous economic losses. Invasive infections by opportunistic fungal pathogens are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immuno-compromised individuals. At the same time, plant pathogenic fungi have devastating effects on crop production and human health. New strategies for antifungal control are required to meet the challenges posed by these agents, and such approaches can only be developed through the identification of novel biochemical and molecular targets. However, in contrast to bacterial pathogens, fungi display a wealth of “lifestyles” and modes of infection. This diversity makes it extremely difficult to identify individual, evolutionarily conserved virulence determinants and represents a major stumbling block in the search for common antifungal targets. In order to activate the infection programme, all fungal pathogens must undergo appropriate developmental transitions that involve cellular differentiation and the introduction of a new morphogenetic programme. How growth, cell cycle progression and morphogenesis are co-ordinately regulated during development has been an active area of research in fungal model systems such as budding and fission yeast. By contrast, we have only limited knowledge of how these developmental processes shape fungal pathogenicity, or of the role of the cell cycle and morphogenesis regulators as true virulence factors. This book combines state-of-the-art expertise from diverse pathogen model systems to update our current understanding of the regulation of fungal morphogenesis as a key determinant of pathogenicity in fungi.



Culture Negative Orthopedic Biofilm Infections

Culture Negative Orthopedic Biofilm Infections Author Garth D. Ehrlich
ISBN-10 9783642295546
Release 2012-12-18
Pages 146
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During the recent transition between acute diseases caused by swarms of single planktonic bacteria, and chronic infections caused by bacteria growing in slime-enclosed biofilms, a general clinical consensus has emerged that pathologies with bacterial etiologies are frequently culture negative. Because biofilm infections now affect 17 million Americans per year (killing approximately 450,000), the suggestion that these common and lethal infections regularly go unnoticed by the only FDA-approved method for their detection and characterization is a matter of urgent concern. Biologically, we would expect that planktonic bacterial cells would colonize any new surface, including the surface of an agar plate, while the specialized sessile cells of a biofilm community would have no such proclivity. In the study of biofilm diseases ranging from otitis media to prostatitis, it was found that direct microscopy and DNA- and RNA-based molecular methods regularly document the presence of living bacteria in tissues and samples that are culture negative. The editors selected orthopedic biofilm infections as the subject of this book because these infections occur against a background of microbiological sterility in which modern molecular methods would be expected to find bacterial DNA, RNA-based microscopic methods would be expected to locate bacterial cells, and cultures would be negative. Moreover, in Orthopedics we find an already biofilm-adapted surgical group in which current strategies are based on the meticulous removal of compromised tissues, antibiotic options as based on high biofilm-killing local doses, and there are practical bedside strategies for dealing with biofilm infections. So here is where the new paradigm of biofilm infection meets the equally new paradigm of the culture negativity of biofilms, and this volume presents a conceptual synthesis that may soon combine the most effective molecular methods for the detection and identification of bacteria with a surgical discipline that is ready to help patients.



Nanotechnology in Endodontics

Nanotechnology in Endodontics Author Anil Kishen
ISBN-10 9783319135755
Release 2015-03-18
Pages 199
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This book provides detailed information on the emerging applications of nanomaterials and nanoparticles within endodontics, highlighting the exciting potential clinical impact of nanotechnology in the field. The range of applications covered is diverse, encompassing drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering, antibacterial strategies, dentin tissue stabilization, dentin pulp regeneration and use in restorative and endodontic materials. Important scientific background information relating to each application is provided, with clear coverage of basic principles. In addition, potential pitfalls are identified and explained. The cytotoxicity of nanomaterials and nanoparticles is also addressed in a separate chapter. The book will be of value both for endodontic practitioners and for all scientists and graduate students who are interested in the application of nanotechnology in endodontics.