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The Science and Engineering of Granulation Processes

The Science and Engineering of Granulation Processes Author Jim Litster
ISBN-10 9789401705462
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 250
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This book had its origins in a meeting between two (relatively) young particle technology researchers on Rehobeth Beach in Delaware in 1992 near the holiday house of Reg Davies (then Director of the Particle Science and Technology Research Center in Dupont). As we played in the sand, we shared an excitement for developments in particle technology, especially particle characterization, that would lead operations such as granulation to be placed on a sound scientific and engineering footing. The immediate outcome from this interaction was the development of new industry short courses in granulation and related topics which we taught together both in Australia and North America. This book follows closely the structure and approaches developed in these courses, particularly the emphasis on particle design in granulation, where the impact of both formulation properties and process variables on product attributes needs to be understood and quantified. The book has been a long time in the making. We have been actively preparing the book for at least five years. Although the chapters have relatively good bibliographies, this book is not a review of the field. Rather it is an attempt by the authors to present a comprehensive engineering approach to granulator design, scale up and operation. It is exciting for us to see the explosion of research interest around the world in this area in the last five to seven years. Some of the most recent work will have to find its way into the second edition.



Introduction to Particle Technology

Introduction to Particle Technology Author Martin J. Rhodes
ISBN-10 9781118681541
Release 2013-03-25
Pages 472
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Particle technology is a term used to refer to the science and technology related to the handling and processing of particles and powders. The production of particulate materials, with controlled properties tailored to subsequent processing and applications, is of major interest to a wide range of industries, including chemical and process, food, pharmaceuticals, minerals and metals companies and the handling of particles in gas and liquid solutions is a key technological step in chemical engineering. This textbook provides an excellent introduction to particle technology with worked examples and exercises. Based on feedback from students and practitioners worldwide, it has been newly edited and contains new chapters on slurry transport, colloids and fine particles, size enlargement and the health effects of fine powders. Topics covered include: Characterization (Size Analysis) Processing (Granulation, Fluidization) Particle Formation (Granulation, Size Reduction) Storage and Transport (Hopper Design, Pneumatic Conveying, Standpipes, Slurry Flow) Separation (Filtration, Settling, Cyclones) Safety (Fire and Explosion Hazards, Health Hazards) Engineering the Properties of Particulate Systems (Colloids, Respirable Drugs, Slurry Rheology) This book is essential reading for undergraduate students of chemical engineering on particle technology courses. It is also valuable supplementary reading for students in other branches of engineering, applied chemistry, physics, pharmaceutics, mineral processing and metallurgy. Practitioners in industries in which powders are handled and processed may find it a useful starting point for gaining an understanding of the behavior of particles and powders. Review of the First Edition taken from High Temperatures - High pressures 1999 31 243 – 251 "..This is a modern textbook that presents clear-cut knowledge. It can be successfully used both for teaching particle technology at universities and for individual study of engineering problems in powder processing."



Design and Processing of Particulate Products

Design and Processing of Particulate Products Author Jim Litster
ISBN-10 9781316727751
Release 2016-10-20
Pages
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With this unique and comprehensive text, readers will gain the quantitative tools needed to engineer the particulate processes and products that are ubiquitous in modern life. Covering a series of particle and particulate delivery form design processes, with emphasis on design and operation to control particle attributes, and supported by many worked examples, it is essential reading for students and practitioners. Topics covered include a range of particle design processes such as crystallization and precipitation, granulation, grinding, aerosol processes and spray drying, as well as forms of delivery such as granules, tablets, dry powders, and aerosols. Readers will learn from real-world examples how the primary particle properties and the structure and properties of the delivery form can lead to high performance products, ranging from pharmaceuticals, consumer goods and foods, to specialty chemicals, paints, agricultural chemicals and minerals.



How to Optimize Fluid Bed Processing Technology

How to Optimize Fluid Bed Processing Technology Author Dilip Parikh
ISBN-10 9780128047286
Release 2017-04-04
Pages 210
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How to Optimize Fluid Bed Processing Technology: Part of the Expertise in Pharmaceutical Process Technology Series addresses the important components of fluid bed granulation, providing answers to problems that commonly arise and using numerous practical examples and case studies as reference. This book covers the theoretical concepts involved in fluidization, also providing a description of the choice and functionality of equipment. Additional chapters feature key aspects of the technology, including formulation requirements, process variables, process scale-up, troubleshooting, new development, safety, and process evaluation. Given its discussion of theoretical principles and practical solutions, this is a go-to resource for all those scientists and new researchers working with fluid bed granulation as a unit operation. Written by an expert in the field with several years of experience in product development, manufacturing, plant operations, and process engineering Illustrates when fluid bed granulation is needed, when to use less common fluid bed granulation methods, and the advantages of fluid bed granulation when compared to other granulation techniques Offers troubleshooting tips and practical advice for scientists working with this technique



Handbook of Pharmaceutical Granulation Technology

Handbook of Pharmaceutical Granulation Technology Author Dilip M. Parikh
ISBN-10 0824798821
Release 1997-06-17
Pages 528
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Integrating the basic principles and industrial practices of pharmaceutical granulation production, this book discusses technologies and demonstrates cost-effective approaches to manufacturing solid-dosage forms with content uniformity and consistent physical properties while complying with regulatory requirements. Specialists from pharmaceutical companies, academia, and the U.S. Drug Regulatory Affairs agency address current and changing practices in industrial drug granulation production. Text, charts, figures, and photographs illustrate the pros and cons of diverse methods and technologies for accurately achieving strong bonding of particles in tablets and capsules.



Particle Breakage

Particle Breakage Author Agba D. Salman
ISBN-10 008055346X
Release 2007-11-01
Pages 1240
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Particle breakage is an important process within a wide range of solids processing industries, including pharmaceuticals, food, agricultural and mining. Breakage of particles can be defined as intentional and unintentional, depending on whether it is desired or not. Through understanding of the science and underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon, particle breakage can be either minimised or encouraged within an efficient and effective process. Particle Breakage examines particle breakage at three different length scales, ranging from single particle studies through groups of particles and looking at solid processing steps as a whole. This book is the widest ranging book in the field and includes the most up-to-date techniques such as Distinct Element Method (DEM), Monte Carlo simulations and Population Balance Equations (PBE). This handbook provides an overview of the current state-of-the- art and particle breakage. From the small scale of a single particle, to the study of whole processes for breakage; both by experimental study and mathematical modelling. * Covering a wide range of subjects and industrial applications * Allows the reader an understanding of the science behind engineered breakage processes * Giving an unrestrictive and interdisciplinary approach



Fluidization Solids Handling and Processing

Fluidization  Solids Handling  and Processing Author Wen-Ching Yang
ISBN-10 9780815517238
Release 1998-12-31
Pages 908
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This volume, Fluidization, Solids Handling, and Processing, is the first of a series of volumes on "Particle Technology". Particles are important products of chemical process industries spanning the basic and specialty chemicals, agricultural products, pharmaceuticals, paints, dyestuffs and pigments, cement, ceramics, and electronic materials. Solids handling and processing technologies are thus essential to the operation and competitiveness of these industries. Fluidization technology is employed not only in chemical production, it also is applied in coal gasification and combustion for power generation, mineral processing, food processing, soil washing and other related waste treatment, environmental remediation, and resource recovery processes. The FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracking) technology commonly employed in the modern petroleum refineries is also based on fluidization principles.



Granulation

Granulation Author Agba D. Salman
ISBN-10 0080467881
Release 2006-11-24
Pages 1402
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Granulation provides a complete and comprehensive introduction on the state-of-the-art of granulation and how it can be applied both in an academic context and from an industrial perspective. Coupling science and engineering practices it covers differing length scales from the sub-granule level through behaviour through single granules, to bulk granule behaviour and equipment design. With special focus on a wide range of industrially relevant areas from fertilizer production, through to pharmaceuticals. Experimental data is complemented by mathematical modelling in this emerging field, allowing for a greater understanding of the basis of particle products and this important industry sector. Four themes run through the book: 1. The Macro Scale processing for Granulation – including up to date descriptions of the methods used for granulation and how they come about and how to monitor – on-line these changes. 2. The Applications of granulation from an industrial perspective, with current descriptive roles and how they are undertaken with relevance to industry, and effective properties. 3. Mechanistic descriptions of granulation and the different rate processes occurring within the granulator. This includes methods of modelling the process using Population – Balance Equations, and Multi-level Computational Fluid Dynamics Models. 4. The Micro Scale: Granules and Smaller, looking at single granules and there interactions and modelling, while also considering the structure of granules and their constituent liquid bridges. * Covers a wide range of subjects and industrial applications * Provides an understanding of current issues for industrial and academic environments * Allows the reader an understanding of the science behind engineered granulation processes



Granulation

Granulation Author Agba D. Salman
ISBN-10 0080467881
Release 2006-11-24
Pages 1402
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Granulation provides a complete and comprehensive introduction on the state-of-the-art of granulation and how it can be applied both in an academic context and from an industrial perspective. Coupling science and engineering practices it covers differing length scales from the sub-granule level through behaviour through single granules, to bulk granule behaviour and equipment design. With special focus on a wide range of industrially relevant areas from fertilizer production, through to pharmaceuticals. Experimental data is complemented by mathematical modelling in this emerging field, allowing for a greater understanding of the basis of particle products and this important industry sector. Four themes run through the book: 1. The Macro Scale processing for Granulation – including up to date descriptions of the methods used for granulation and how they come about and how to monitor – on-line these changes. 2. The Applications of granulation from an industrial perspective, with current descriptive roles and how they are undertaken with relevance to industry, and effective properties. 3. Mechanistic descriptions of granulation and the different rate processes occurring within the granulator. This includes methods of modelling the process using Population – Balance Equations, and Multi-level Computational Fluid Dynamics Models. 4. The Micro Scale: Granules and Smaller, looking at single granules and there interactions and modelling, while also considering the structure of granules and their constituent liquid bridges. * Covers a wide range of subjects and industrial applications * Provides an understanding of current issues for industrial and academic environments * Allows the reader an understanding of the science behind engineered granulation processes



Introduction to Particle Technology

Introduction to Particle Technology Author Martin J. Rhodes
ISBN-10 9781118681541
Release 2013-03-25
Pages 472
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Particle technology is a term used to refer to the science and technology related to the handling and processing of particles and powders. The production of particulate materials, with controlled properties tailored to subsequent processing and applications, is of major interest to a wide range of industries, including chemical and process, food, pharmaceuticals, minerals and metals companies and the handling of particles in gas and liquid solutions is a key technological step in chemical engineering. This textbook provides an excellent introduction to particle technology with worked examples and exercises. Based on feedback from students and practitioners worldwide, it has been newly edited and contains new chapters on slurry transport, colloids and fine particles, size enlargement and the health effects of fine powders. Topics covered include: Characterization (Size Analysis) Processing (Granulation, Fluidization) Particle Formation (Granulation, Size Reduction) Storage and Transport (Hopper Design, Pneumatic Conveying, Standpipes, Slurry Flow) Separation (Filtration, Settling, Cyclones) Safety (Fire and Explosion Hazards, Health Hazards) Engineering the Properties of Particulate Systems (Colloids, Respirable Drugs, Slurry Rheology) This book is essential reading for undergraduate students of chemical engineering on particle technology courses. It is also valuable supplementary reading for students in other branches of engineering, applied chemistry, physics, pharmaceutics, mineral processing and metallurgy. Practitioners in industries in which powders are handled and processed may find it a useful starting point for gaining an understanding of the behavior of particles and powders. Review of the First Edition taken from High Temperatures - High pressures 1999 31 243 – 251 "..This is a modern textbook that presents clear-cut knowledge. It can be successfully used both for teaching particle technology at universities and for individual study of engineering problems in powder processing."



Developing Solid Oral Dosage Forms

Developing Solid Oral Dosage Forms Author Yihong Qiu
ISBN-10 9780128026373
Release 2016-11-08
Pages 1176
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Developing Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Pharmaceutical Theory and Practice, Second Edition illustrates how to develop high-quality, safe, and effective pharmaceutical products by discussing the latest techniques, tools, and scientific advances in preformulation investigation, formulation, process design, characterization, scale-up, and production operations. This book covers the essential principles of physical pharmacy, biopharmaceutics, and industrial pharmacy, and their application to the research and development process of oral dosage forms. Chapters have been added, combined, deleted, and completely revised as necessary to produce a comprehensive, well-organized, valuable reference for industry professionals and academics engaged in all aspects of the development process. New and important topics include spray drying, amorphous solid dispersion using hot-melt extrusion, modeling and simulation, bioequivalence of complex modified-released dosage forms, biowaivers, and much more. Written and edited by an international team of leading experts with experience and knowledge across industry, academia, and regulatory settings Includes new chapters covering the pharmaceutical applications of surface phenomenon, predictive biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics, the development of formulations for drug discovery support, and much more Presents new case studies throughout, and a section completely devoted to regulatory aspects, including global product regulation and international perspectives



Fundamentals of Ceramic Powder Processing and Synthesis

Fundamentals of Ceramic Powder Processing and Synthesis Author Terry A. Ring
ISBN-10 9780080532196
Release 1996-04-30
Pages 961
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Ceramic powder synthesis and processing are two of the most important technologies in chemical engineering and the ceramics-related area of materials science. This book covers both the processing and the synthesis ofceramic powders in great depth and is indeed the only up-to-date, comprehensive source on the subject available. The application of modern scientific and engineering methods to the field of ceramic powder synthesis has resulted in much greater control of properties. Fundamentals of Ceramic Powder Processing and Synthesis presents examples of these modern methods as they apply to ceramic powders. The book is organized to describe the natural and synthetic raw materials that comprise contemporary ceramics. It covers the three reactant processes used in synthetic ceramic powder synthesis: solid, liquid, andgas. Ceramic powder processing, as a field of materials processing, is undergoing rapid expansion. The present volume is intended as a complete and useful source on this subject of great current interest. It provides comprehensive coverage from a strong chemistry and chemical engineering perspective and is especially applicable to materials scientists, chemical engineers, and applied chemists. Key Features * The most complete and updated reference source on the subject * Comprehensive coverage from a stron chemical engineering and chemistry perspective * Emphasis on both natural and synthetic raw materials in ceramic powder synthesis * Information on reaction kinetics * Superior, more comprehensive coverage than that in existing texts * Sample problems and exercises * Problems at the end of each chapter which supplement the material



Particle Size Enlargement

Particle Size Enlargement Author C. E. Capes
ISBN-10 9781483275079
Release 2013-10-22
Pages 204
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Handbook of Powder Technology, Volume 1: Particle Size Enlargement is the first of a series which will together form a Handbook of Powder Technology, primarily intended for engineers and scientists working in industry. The scope of the Handbook can be defined as being concerned with that part of chemical engineering which deals with processes involving the handling and treatment of material in solid particulate form. This book deals with methods used to create larger entities from fine particles so that the bulk properties of particulates can be improved. These so-called ""size enlargement"" methods evidently concern a broad spectrum of technical disciplines and industries ranging from the relatively small scale requirements of pharmaceutical manufacturers through the tonnage requirements of the fertilizer and minerals processing industries. A primary objective in preparing this book was to present a generalized account of the many size enlargement techniques scattered throughout these diverse industries, with emphasis on similarities and unifying characteristics whenever possible. The book devotes one chapter to each of the principal methods used to bring particles together into agglomerates: agitation methods— tumbling agglomeration, agitation methods—mixer agglomeration, pressure methods, thermal methods, spray and dispersion methods, and agglomeration from liquids.



Bioinspired Materials Science and Engineering

Bioinspired Materials Science and Engineering Author Guang Yang
ISBN-10 9781119390343
Release 2018-07-04
Pages 400
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An authoritative introduction to the science and engineering of bioinspired materials Bioinspired Materials Science and Engineering offers a comprehensive view of the science and engineering of bioinspired materials and includes a discussion of biofabrication approaches and applications of bioinspired materials as they are fed back to nature in the guise of biomaterials. The authors also review some biological compounds and shows how they can be useful in the engineering of bioinspired materials. With contributions from noted experts in the field, this comprehensive resource considers biofabrication, biomacromolecules, and biomaterials. The authors illustrate the bioinspiration process from materials design and conception to application of bioinspired materials. In addition, the text presents the multidisciplinary aspect of the concept, and contains a typical example of how knowledge is acquired from nature, and how in turn this information contributes to biological sciences, with an accent on biomedical applications. This important resource: Offers an introduction to the science and engineering principles for the development of bioinspired materials Includes a summary of recent developments on biotemplated formation of inorganic materials using natural templates Illustrates the fabrication of 3D-tumor invasion models and their potential application in drug assessments Explores electroactive hydrogels based on natural polymers Contains information on turning mechanical properties of protein hydrogels for biomedical applications Written for chemists, biologists, physicists, and engineers, Bioinspired Materials Science and Engineering contains an indispensible resource for an understanding of bioinspired materials science and engineering.



Handbook of Food Powders

Handbook of Food Powders Author Bhesh Bhandari
ISBN-10 9780857098672
Release 2013-08-31
Pages 688
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Many food ingredients are supplied in powdered form, as reducing water content increases shelf life and aids ease of storage, handling and transport. Powder technology is therefore of great importance to the food industry. The Handbook of food powders explores a variety of processes that are involved in the production of food powders, the further processing of these powders and their functional properties. Part one introduces processing and handling technologies for food powders and includes chapters on spray, freeze and drum drying, powder mixing in the production of food powders and safety issues around food powder production processes. Part two focusses on powder properties including surface composition, rehydration and techniques to analyse the particle size of food powders. Finally, part three highlights speciality food powders and includes chapters on dairy powders, fruit and vegetable powders and coating foods with powders. The Handbook of food powders is a standard reference for professionals in the food powder production and handling industries, development and quality control professionals in the food industry using powders in foods, and researchers, scientists and academics interested in the field. Explores the processing and handling technologies in the production of food powders Examines powder properties, including surface composition, shelf life, and techniques used to examine particle size Focusses on speciality powders such as dairy, infant formulas, powdered egg, fruit and vegetable, and culinary and speciality products



Particulate Science and Technology

Particulate Science and Technology Author John K. Beddow
ISBN-10 UCAL:B4497797
Release 1980
Pages 725
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Contents - Preface Introduction Chapter 1 In the Scheme of Things 3 1.1 Particulate Science and Technology 3 1.2 Our Realm 5 Chapter 2 The Single Particle 10 2.1 The Primacy of the Single Particle 10 2.2 Concept and Definition of a Particle 13 2.3 The Particle Surface 35 2.4 The Subsurface Region 50 2.5 Interior of the Particle 58 2.6 Particle Size 59 2.7 Conception and Definitions of Shape 62 Chapter 3 The Formation and Production of Particulates 77 3.1 The Several Processes 77 3.2 Atomization of Metal Powders 79 3.3 Spraying and Atomizing 83 3.4 Comminution 98 3.5 Crystallization 130 3.6 Production of Fine Powders 135 3.7 Granulation 136 3.8 Aerosol Particle Generation 150 3.9 Ultrasmall Particles and Clusters 154 Chapter 4 The Processing and Handling of Particulate Matter 167 4.1 Current State of the Art 167 4.2 Flow and Storage of Particulate Solids 169 4.3 Conveyance and Flow of Particulate Solids 188 4.4 Particulate Beds 204 4.5 Mixing of Particulate Solids 215 4.6 Solid-Liquid Mixing 238 4.7 Interparticle Separation Technology 242 4.8 Laboratory Separation Techniques 251 4.9 Particle-Fluid Separation 255 4.10 Compaction of Particulate Matter 279 4.11 Sintering 291 Chapter 5 Description of Particulate Assemblies 311 5.1 Description of Particle Sets 311 5.2 Properties of Particle and Particle Sets as Influenced by Variations in Particle Size and Particle Shape 313 5.3 Fundamental Statistical Concepts 328 5.4 Mean Diameters 334 5.5 Shape Factors 338 5.6 Distribution Functions and Functional Model 350 5.7 Test of Statistical Hypothesis (Statistical Inference) 356 5.8 Particle Size Data Types I and II 358 5.9 Calculation of Sample Statistics and Data Comparison Finite Interval Model 359 5.10 Summary of Methods for Finite Interval Data 364 5.11 General Types of Log Normal Functions 366 5.12 Comparison of Sample Statistics-Log Normal Model 369 5.13 Surface Area and Specific Surface Calculations 372 5.14 Other Distributions 373 5 .15 Chapter Notations and Definitions 377 Chapter 6 Fine Particle Characterization 387 6.1 From Past to Future 387 6.2 Size AnalysiS and Sampling 389 6.3 Fundamentals of Methods for Determining Particle Size 402 6.4 Principles of Shape Determination Methods 413 6.5 Pattern Recognition and Particulate Characterization 428 6.6 On the Design of a System for Particle Shape Analysis 436 6.7 Feature Extraction 454 6.8 Particle Signature and the Meloy Equations 466 6.9 Property Representation 482 6.10 Principles of Stereology 498 6.11 Deterministic, Statistical and Fuzzy Classifiers 504 6.12 Interpretation of Coefficients 524 Chapter 7 Physical-Chemical Properties 544 7.1 An Elementary Starting Point 544 7.2 Visual Appearance 544 7.3 Absorption 552 7.4 Electrical Properties 564 7.5 Brownian Motion 570 7.6 Chemical Properties 574 7.7 Adhesion and Deposition of Particles 581 7.8 Particle Characteristics Important in Deposition 590 7.9 Magnetism 611 7.10 Thermal Conductivity 625 Chapter 8 Hazards 640 8.1 The Threat to Humankind 640 8.2 Dust Explosions 640 8.3 Health Hazards 646 8.4 Deserts and Sand Movement 657 8.5 Dust Flame Propagation 661 8.6 Health Hazard Case Studies 667 Author Index 680 Subject Index 694



Particle Technology

Particle Technology Author Hans Rumpf
ISBN-10 9789401179447
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 200
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The inspiration for translating this classic text came during a sabbatical year spent at the University of Karlsruhe in 1974. Under the leadership of the late Professor Hans Rumpf, the Institut fUr Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik, Karlsruhe, from the early 1960s onwards, by extensive research and advanced teaching had promoted the discipline of mechanical process technology, a branch of process engineering which had been rather neglected, especially in many chemical engineering depart ments of universities in the English-speaking world. There is a need for texts of this kind, particularly for the more specialized teaching that has to be done during the later stages of engineering courses. This work, which is really a monograph, serves as a concise and compact introduction, albeit at an advanced level, to all those functions of process engineering that have to do with the handling and treatment of particulate matter and bulk solids. Much of this information has previously been scattered around journals and other books and not brought together in one work. Furthermore, Rumpf has emphasized the physical and theoretical foundations of the subject and avoided a treatment that is simply empirical.