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The Specter of Genocide

The Specter of Genocide Author Robert Gellately
ISBN-10 0521527503
Release 2003-07-07
Pages 396
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Offers an up-to-date, comprehensive history and analyses of multiple cases of genocide and genocidal acts.



Confronting Tyranny

Confronting Tyranny Author Toivo Koivukoski
ISBN-10 074254401X
Release 2005
Pages 260
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Motivated by the reentry of tyranny into political discourse and political action, this new work compares ancient and contemporary accounts of tyranny in an effort to find responses to current political dilemmas and enduring truths. In our globally interconnected world, tyrants are no longer dangerous solely to their subjects and neighbors, but to all. This is where the debate begins as the lessons of classical political philosophy are thrown into the present political crisis of understanding and action.



The Killing Season

The Killing Season Author Geoffrey B. Robinson
ISBN-10 9781400888863
Release 2018-02-13
Pages 456
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The Killing Season explores one of the largest and swiftest, yet least examined, instances of mass killing and incarceration in the twentieth century—the shocking antileftist purge that gripped Indonesia in 1965–66, leaving some five hundred thousand people dead and more than a million others in detention. An expert in modern Indonesian history, genocide, and human rights, Geoffrey Robinson sets out to account for this violence and to end the troubling silence surrounding it. In doing so, he sheds new light on broad and enduring historical questions. How do we account for instances of systematic mass killing and detention? Why are some of these crimes remembered and punished, while others are forgotten? What are the social and political ramifications of such acts and such silence? Challenging conventional narratives of the mass violence of 1965–66 as arising spontaneously from religious and social conflicts, Robinson argues convincingly that it was instead the product of a deliberate campaign, led by the Indonesian Army. He also details the critical role played by the United States, Britain, and other major powers in facilitating mass murder and incarceration. Robinson concludes by probing the disturbing long-term consequences of the violence for millions of survivors and Indonesian society as a whole. Based on a rich body of primary and secondary sources, The Killing Season is the definitive account of a pivotal period in Indonesian history. It also makes a powerful contribution to wider debates about the dynamics and legacies of mass killing, incarceration, and genocide.



The American West and the Nazi East

The American West and the Nazi East Author C. Kakel
ISBN-10 9780230307063
Release 2011-07-12
Pages 299
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By employing new 'optics' and a comparative approach, this book helps us recognize the unexpected and unsettling connections between America's 'western' empire and Nazi Germany's 'eastern' empire, linking histories previously thought of as totally unrelated and leading readers towards a deep revisioning of the 'American West' and the 'Nazi East'.



Blood and Soil

Blood and Soil Author Ben Kiernan
ISBN-10 9780300137934
Release 2008-10-01
Pages 735
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For thirty years Ben Kiernan has been deeply involved in the study of genocide and crimes against humanity. He has played a key role in unearthing confidential documentation of the atrocities committed by the Khmer Rouge. His writings have transformed our understanding not only of twentieth-century Cambodia but also of the historical phenomenon of genocide. This new bookthe first global history of genocide and extermination from ancient timesis among his most important achievements. Kiernan examines outbreaks of mass violence from the classical era to the present, focusing on worldwide colonial exterminations and twentieth-century case studies including the Armenian genocide, the Nazi Holocaust, Stalins mass murders, and the Cambodian and Rwandan genocides. He identifies connections, patterns, and features that in nearly every case gave early warning of the catastrophe to come: racism or religious prejudice, territorial expansionism, and cults of antiquity and agrarianism. The ideologies that have motivated perpetrators of mass killings in the past persist in our new century, says Kiernan. He urges that we heed the rich historical evidence with its telltale signs for predicting and preventing future genocides.



Confronting Genocide

Confronting Genocide Author Steven Leonard Jacobs
ISBN-10 9780739135907
Release 2009-05-16
Pages 350
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Confronting Genocide: Judaism, Christianity, Islam is the first collection of essays by recognized scholars primarily in the field of religious studies to address this timely topic. In addition to theoretical thinking about both religion and genocide and the relationship between the two, these authors look at the tragedies of the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide, Rwanda, Bosnia, and the Sudan from their own unique vantage point. In so doing, they supply a much needed additional contribution to the ongoing conversations proffered by historians, political scientists, sociologists, psychologists, and legal scholars regarding prevention, intervention, and punishment.



Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century The Socio Legal Context of Claims under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia 1904 1908

Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century  The Socio Legal Context of Claims under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia  1904 1908 Author Jeremy Sarkin
ISBN-10 9780313362576
Release 2008-11-30
Pages 320
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More and more, the descendants of indigenous victims of genocide, land expropriation, forced labor, and other systematic human rights violations committed by colonial powers are seeking reparations under international law from the modern successor governments and corporations. As the number of colonial reparations cases increases, courts around the world are being asked to apply international law to determine whether reparations are due for atrocities and crimes that might have been committed long ago but whose lasting effects are alleged to injure the modern descendants of the victims. Sarkin analyzes the thorny issues of international law raised in such suits by focusing on groundbreaking cases in which he is involved as legal advisor to the paramount chief of the Herero people of Namibia. In 2001, the Herero became the first ethnic group to seek reparations under the legal definition of genocide by bringing multi-billion-dollar suits against Germany and German companies in a number of U.S. federal courts under the Alien Torts Claim Act of 1789. The Herero genocide, conducted in German South-West Africa (present-day Namibia) between 1904 and 1908, is recognized by the UN as the first organized state genocide in world history. Although the Herero were subjected to Germany's First Genocide, they have, unlike the victims of the Holocaust, received no reparations from Germany. By machine-gun massacres, starvation, poisoning, and forced labor in Germany's first concentration camps, the German Schutztruppe systematically exterminated as many as 105,000 Herero women, and children, composing most of the Herero population. Sarkin considers whether these historical events constitute legally defined genocide, crimes against humanity, and other international crimes. He evaluates the legal status of indigenous polities in Africa at the time and he explores the enduring impact in Namibia of the Germany's colonial campaign of genocide. He extrapolates the Herero case to global issues of reparations, apologies, and historical human rights violations, especially in Africa.



The Order of Genocide

The Order of Genocide Author Scott Straus
ISBN-10 9780801467158
Release 2013-01-14
Pages 296
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The Rwandan genocide has become a touchstone for debates about the causes of mass violence and the responsibilities of the international community. Yet a number of key questions about this tragedy remain unanswered: How did the violence spread from community to community and so rapidly engulf the nation? Why did individuals make decisions that led them to take up machetes against their neighbors? And what was the logic that drove the campaign of extermination? According to Scott Straus, a social scientist and former journalist in East Africa for several years (who received a Pulitzer Prize nomination for his reporting for the Houston Chronicle), many of the widely held beliefs about the causes and course of genocide in Rwanda are incomplete. They focus largely on the actions of the ruling elite or the inaction of the international community. Considerably less is known about how and why elite decisions became widespread exterminatory violence. Challenging the prevailing wisdom, Straus provides substantial new evidence about local patterns of violence, using original research-including the most comprehensive surveys yet undertaken among convicted perpetrators-to assess competing theories about the causes and dynamics of the genocide. Current interpretations stress three main causes for the genocide: ethnic identity, ideology, and mass-media indoctrination (in particular the influence of hate radio). Straus's research does not deny the importance of ethnicity, but he finds that it operated more as a background condition. Instead, Straus emphasizes fear and intra-ethnic intimidation as the primary drivers of the violence. A defensive civil war and the assassination of a president created a feeling of acute insecurity. Rwanda's unusually effective state was also central, as was the country's geography and population density, which limited the number of exit options for both victims and perpetrators. In conclusion, Straus steps back from the particulars of the Rwandan genocide to offer a new, dynamic model for understanding other instances of genocide in recent history-the Holocaust, Armenia, Cambodia, the Balkans-and assessing the future likelihood of such events.



Disrupting Pathways to Genocide

Disrupting Pathways to Genocide Author E. Murray
ISBN-10 9781137404718
Release 2015-03-17
Pages 218
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How does ideology in some states radicalise to such an extent as to become genocidal? Can the causes of radicalisation be seen as internal or external? Examining the ideological evolution in the Armenian genocide, the Holocaust and during the break up of Yugoslavia, Elisabeth Hope Murray seeks to answer these questions in this comparative work.



Terrorism

Terrorism Author Rosemary H. T O'Kane
ISBN-10 9781317860570
Release 2014-06-06
Pages 208
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The history of terrorism stretches back nearly two thousand years and terrorism, both in the forms of terrorist groups and terror regimes, is an inherent part of the modern world: from Anarchist groups to al-Qaida; from Hitler’s Germany and SS to al-Bashir’s Sudan and Janjaweed militias. It is a subject of high current interest that is rarely out of the news (not least as the legacy of ‘9/11’) and it is also of enduring interest. As a new volume in the Seminar Studies series, Terrorism has been brought up-to-date and now looks at both contemporary terrorism and its historical antecedents, providing a much needed introduction to the subject.



Genocide and Gender in the Twentieth Century

Genocide and Gender in the Twentieth Century Author Amy E. Randall
ISBN-10 9781472509802
Release 2015-10-29
Pages 336
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Genocide and Gender in the Twentieth Century brings together a collection of some of the finest Genocide Studies scholars in North America and Europe to examine gendered discourses, practices and experiences of ethnic cleansing and genocide in the 20th century. It includes essays focusing on the genocide in Rwanda, the Armenian genocide in the Ottoman Empire, the Holocaust and ethnic cleansing and genocide in the former Yugoslavia. The book looks at how historically- and culturally-specific ideas about reproduction, biology, and ethnic, national, racial and religious identity contributed to the possibility for and the unfolding of genocidal sexual violence, including mass rape. The book also considers how these ideas, in conjunction with discourses of femininity and masculinity, and understandings of female and male identities, contributed to perpetrators' tools and strategies for ethnic cleansing and genocide, as well as victims' experiences of these processes. This is an ideal text for any student looking to further understand the crucial topic of gender in genocide studies.



Liberal Wars

Liberal Wars Author Alan Cromartie
ISBN-10 9781317556589
Release 2015-04-24
Pages 220
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This book addresses the relationship between the 'liberal' values of Anglo-Saxon cultures and the way that they conduct themselves when they are fighting - or preparing to fight - wars. The United States and the United Kingdom are characterised by a consensus that their social and political arrangements are, in a very broad sense, ‘liberal’. Liberalism is not pacifism; nor are liberals necessarily respectful of traditional prohibitions that have set out to moderate excessive violence. But liberals do seek to understand their violent actions as part of a wider project of defending or expanding liberal freedoms. The perceived alternative is to undermine the will to keep on fighting. Sustaining a liberal picture of what is going on is an indispensable part of a liberal strategy. Contributors with disciplinary backgrounds in history, international relations, and strategic studies discuss what ‘liberalism’ means in this particular context and how it might relate to ‘strategy’, both in the recent past and in the future. The chapters consider how liberal states understand the wars they fight, the constraints liberal values place on these states, the role of public opinion and the appropriate strategies for modern liberal states. Topics addressed include civilian bombing, the nature of US military culture, the British ‘Iraq inquiries’, the effects of the erosion of Westphalian sovereignty and the rise of new ideas about ‘globalization’, and the decline in popular involvement. This book will be of much interest to students of strategic studies, political philosophy, foreign policy, security studies and IR in general.



Making Sense of Mass Atrocity

Making Sense of Mass Atrocity Author Mark Osiel
ISBN-10 9781139480659
Release 2009-07-31
Pages
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Genocide, crimes against humanity, and the worst war crimes are possible only when the state or other organisations mobilise and co-ordinate the efforts of many people. Responsibility for mass atrocity is always widely shared, often by thousands. Yet criminal law, with its liberal underpinnings, prefers to blame particular individuals for isolated acts. Is such law, therefore, constitutionally unable to make any sense of the most catastrophic conflagrations of our time? Drawing on the experience of several prosecutions, this book both trenchantly diagnoses the law's limits at such times and offers a spirited defence of its moral and intellectual resources for meeting the vexing challenge of holding anyone criminally accountable for mass atrocity. Just as war criminals develop new methods of eluding law's historic grasp, so criminal law flexibly devises novel responses to their stratagems. Mark Osiel examines several such legal innovations in international jurisprudence and proposes still others.



The Theatre of Genocide

The Theatre of Genocide Author Robert Skloot
ISBN-10 0299224732
Release 2008-02-15
Pages 232
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In this pioneering volume, Robert Skloot brings together four plays—three of which are published here for the first time—that fearlessly explore the face of modern genocide. The scripts deal with the destruction of four targeted populations: Armenians in Lorne Shirinian’s Exile in the Cradle, Cambodians in Catherine Filloux’s Silence of God, Bosnian Muslims in Kitty Felde’s A Patch of Earth, and Rwandan Tutsis in Erik Ehn’s Maria Kizito. Taken together, these four plays erase the boundaries of theatrical realism to present stories that probe the actions of the perpetrators and the suffering of their victims. A major artistic contribution to the study of the history and effects of genocide, this collection carries on the important journey toward understanding the terror and trauma to which the modern world has so often been witness.



Silent Memories Traumatic Lives

Silent Memories  Traumatic Lives Author Lesa Melnyczuk
ISBN-10 9781925040029
Release 2012-06-01
Pages 328
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Silent Memories — Traumatic Lives is a quest for understanding, an attempt to make sense of the very emotional history of the Ukrainian post-war migrants to Western Australia. Ukrainian migrants arrived in Australia by ship between 1947 and 1951, from the Displaced Persons camps of Europe, survivors of the worst of the Soviet regime’s atrocities, including genocidal famine, and only recently released from forced unpaid labour under the German Nazi regime. The testimonies of Ukrainian famine survivors included in this book reflect the findings of similar studies carried out in Ukrainian communities throughout the world. This work adds to mounting evidence of the genocidal nature of the Ukrainian famine of 1932–1933 and the lasting effects it has had on survivors.



Fires of Hatred

Fires of Hatred Author Norman M. Naimark
ISBN-10 9780674975828
Release 2002-09-19
Pages 256
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Of all the horrors of the last century--perhaps the bloodiest century of the past millennium--ethnic cleansing ranks among the worst. The term burst forth in public discourse in the spring of 1992 as a way to describe Serbian attacks on the Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina, but as this landmark book attests, ethnic cleansing is neither new nor likely to cease in our time.



Genocide Mass Atrocity and War Crimes in Modern History Blood and Conscience 2 volumes

Genocide  Mass Atrocity  and War Crimes in Modern History  Blood and Conscience  2 volumes Author James Larry Taulbee
ISBN-10 9781440829857
Release 2017-02-06
Pages 696
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Defining "genocide" as an international crime, this two-volume set provides a comparative study of historical cases of genocide and mass atrocity—clearly identifying the factors that produced the attitudes and behaviors that led to them—discusses the reasons for rules in war, and examines how the five principles laid out in the Geneva Conventions and other international agreements have functioned in modern warfare. • Presents a comparative perspective and detailed historical background for each case that emphasizes how many different factors may lead to atrocity/genocide • Discusses the difficulty of organizing international efforts to intervene to prevent atrocities or to respond at the moment they are occurring • Explains why international prosecutions for genocide are difficult even though the goal of the law is to hold responsible those in charge as well as the planners and instigators • Identifies how cultural factors affect individual attitudes toward what is accepted as legitimate behavior in combat • Focuses on the "law in action" with illustrations from specific cases