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The Watchers in Jewish and Christian Traditions

The Watchers in Jewish and Christian Traditions Author Angela Kim Harkins
ISBN-10 9780800699789
Release 2014
Pages 241
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At the origin of the Watchers tradition is the single enigmatic reference in Genesis 6 to the "sons of God" who had intercourse with human women, producing a race of giants upon the earth. That verse sparked a wealth of cosmological and theological speculation in early Judaism. Here leading scholars explore the contours of the Watchers traditions through history, tracing their development through the Enoch literature, Jubilees, and other early Jewish and Christian writings. This volume provides a lucid survey of current knowledge and interpretation of one of the most intriguing theological motifs of the Second Temple period.



Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity

Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity Author Annette Yoshiko Reed
ISBN-10 9781139446877
Release 2005-11-28
Pages
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This book considers the early history of Jewish-Christian relations focussing on traditions about the fallen angels. In the Book of the Watchers, an Enochic apocalypse from the third century BCE, the 'sons of God' of Gen 6:1–4 are accused of corrupting humankind through their teachings of metalworking, cosmetology, magic, and divination. By tracing the transformations of this motif in Second Temple, Rabbinic, and early medieval Judaism and early, late antique, and Byzantine Christianity, this book sheds light on the history of interpretation of Genesis, the changing status of Enochic literature, and the place of parabiblical texts and traditions in the interchange between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages. In the process, it explores issues such as the role of text-selection in the delineation of community boundaries and the development of early Jewish and Christian ideas about the origins of evil on the earth.



The Myth of Rebellious Angels

The Myth of Rebellious Angels Author Stuckenbruck, Loren T.
ISBN-10 9780802873156
Release 2017-02-17
Pages 427
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The mythical story of fallen angels preserved in 1 Enoch and related literature was profoundly influential during the Second Temple period. In this volume renowned scholar Loren Stuckenbruck explores aspects of that influence and demonstrates how the myth was reused and adapted to address new religious and cultural contexts. Stuckenbruck considers a variety of themes, including demonology, giants, exorcism, petitionary prayer, the birth and activity of Jesus, the Holy Spirit, the conversion of Gentiles, "apocalyptic" and the understanding of time, and more. He also offers a theological framework for the myth of fallen angels through which to reconsider several New Testament texts--the Synoptic Gospels, the Gospel of John, Acts, Paul's letters, and the book of Revelation.



The Origin of Evil Spirits

The Origin of Evil Spirits Author Archie T. Wright
ISBN-10 3161510313
Release 2013-11-26
Pages 0
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How do we account for the explosion of demonic activity in the New Testament? Archie T. Wright examines the trajectory of the origin of evil spirits in early Jewish literature. His work traces the development of the concept of evil spirits from the Hebrew Bible (Genesis 6) through post-biblical Jewish literature. "I would in fact recommend this book, not because of the answers it gives, but the questions it raises." -- Philip R. Davies in Journal of Semitic Studies 55 (2010) "This work is marked by several strengths. First, Wright shows an impressive command of the primary and secondary literature. Second, this writer appreciates Wright's tendency to express cautious conclusions regarding historical and source-critical matters. These qualities are especially helpful in a work dealing with the reception history of a given text. Third, Wright has an extremely helpful discussion of the identity of the nephilim of Gen. 6:4 (80-83)." -- Mark D. Owens in Faith & Mission 24 (2007), pp. 68-70



Jewish Lore in Manichaean Cosmogony

Jewish Lore in Manichaean Cosmogony Author John C. Reeves
ISBN-10 0822964104
Release 2016-07
Pages 272
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A work entitled the "Book of Giants" figures in every list of the Manichaean canon preserved from antiquity. Both the nature of this work and the intellectual baggage of the third-century Persian prophet to whom it is ascribed remained unknown to scholars until 1943. Discovery of a fragmentary Aramaic version at Qumran enables John C. Reeves to connect the dots and demonstrate that the motifs of Jewish Enochic literature, in particular those of the story of the Watchers and Giants, form the skeletal structure of Mani's cosmological teachings, and that Chapters 1 to 11 of Genesis fertilized Near Eastern thought, even to the borders of India and China.



The Omega Watchers

The Omega Watchers Author Jane E. Woodlee Hedrick
ISBN-10 1498418392
Release 2014-11-12
Pages 370
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A mysterious Dead Sea Scroll revealed prophecies of the return of the fallen angels and the timing of their release from the abyss where they have been imprisoned awaiting their final judgment. But, there is a missing piece to the prophetic puzzle! Gabriella's cave exploration leads her team on an ominous journey to discover a lost prophecy from the days of Noah and find her own spiritual truth. In her search she opens her mind to a "Watcher" that captures her with his mystical powers of universal knowledge as they travel between time and untime. This deceiving spirit proclaims the coming of the Ascended Master who will usher in a new age of peace for all mankind. Gabriella feels totally alone as her friends believe Yahweh as the one true God and they struggle to convince her she is falling deeper and deeper into a pit of destruction and is about to cross the point of no return.



Dark Mirrors

Dark Mirrors Author Andrei A. Orlov
ISBN-10 9781438439532
Release 2011-12-01
Pages 217
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Discusses the two most important figures in early Jewish mythologies of evil, the fallen angels Azazel and Satanael.



The Origins of Jewish Mysticism

The Origins of Jewish Mysticism Author Peter Schäfer
ISBN-10 9780691142159
Release 2011-01-24
Pages 398
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The Origins of Jewish Mysticism offers the first in-depth look at the history of Jewish mysticism from the book of Ezekiel to the Merkavah mysticism of late antiquity. The Merkavah movement is widely recognized as the first full-fledged expression of Jewish mysticism, one that had important ramifications for classical rabbinic Judaism and the emergence of the Kabbalah in twelfth-century Europe. Yet until now, the origins and development of still earlier forms of Jewish mysticism have been largely overlooked. In this book, Peter Schäfer sheds new light on Ezekiel's tantalizing vision, the apocalyptic literature of Enoch, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the writings of the Hellenistic Jewish philosopher Philo, the rabbinical writings of the Talmudic period, and the esotericism of the Merkavah mystics. Schäfer questions whether we can accurately speak of Jewish mysticism as a uniform, coherent phenomenon with origins in Judaism's mythical past. Rather than imposing preconceived notions about "mysticism" on a great variety of writings that arose from different cultural, religious, and historical settings, he reveals what these writings seek to tell us about the age-old human desire to get close to and communicate with God.



Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity

Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity Author Annette Yoshiko Reed
ISBN-10 0521853788
Release 2005-11-28
Pages 318
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This book considers the early history of Jewish-Christian relations through a focus on the fallen angels. The book of Genesis tersely refers to "sons of God" marrying "daughters of men" in the days before the Flood. The nature of their sins is explored in the Book of the Watchers, an apocalypse from the third century BCE, written in the name of Enoch. This apocalypse accuses the fallen angels of corrupting humankind through their teachings of metalworking, cosmetology, magic, and divination. Wayward angels are here blamed for the very origins of evil on the earth.



Two Powers in Heaven

Two Powers in Heaven Author Alan F. Segal
ISBN-10 039104172X
Release 2002
Pages 313
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In this study of the rabbinic heretics who believed in "Two Powers in Heaven," Alan Segal explores some relationships between rabbinic Judaism, Merkabah mysticism, and early Christianity. "Two Powers in Heaven" was a very early category of heresy. It was one of the basic categories by which the rabbis perceived the new phenomenon of Christianity and one of the central issues over which Judaism and Christianity separated. Segal reconstructs the development of the heresy through prudent dating of the stages of the rabbinic traditions. The basic heresy involved interpreting scripture to say that a principal angelic or hypostatic manifestation in heaven was equivalent to God. The earliest heretics believed in two complementary powers in heaven, while later heretics believed in two opposing powers in heaven. Segal stresses the importance of perceiving the relevance of rabbinic material for solving traditional problems of New Testament and gnostic scholarship, and at the same time maintains the necessity of reading those literatures for dating rabbinic material. Please note that "Two Powers in Heaven" was previously published by Brill in hardback, ISBN 90 04 05453 7 (no longer available).



The Greatest Mirror

The Greatest Mirror Author Andrei A. Orlov
ISBN-10 9781438466927
Release 2017-09-19
Pages 318
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A wide-ranging analysis of heavenly twin imagery in early Jewish extrabiblical texts. The idea of a heavenly double—an angelic twin of an earthbound human—can be found in Christian, Manichaean, Islamic, and Kabbalistic traditions. Scholars have long traced the lineage of these ideas to Greco-Roman and Iranian sources. In The Greatest Mirror, Andrei A. Orlov shows that heavenly twin imagery drew in large part from early Jewish writings. The Jewish pseudepigrapha—books from the Second Temple period that were attributed to biblical figures but excluded from the Hebrew Bible—contain accounts of heavenly twins in the form of spirits, images, faces, children, mirrors, and angels of the Presence. Orlov provides a comprehensive analysis of these traditions in their full historical and interpretive complexity. He focuses on heavenly alter egos of Enoch, Moses, Jacob, Joseph, and Aseneth in often neglected books, including Animal Apocalypse, Book of the Watchers, 2 Enoch, Ladder of Jacob, and Joseph and Aseneth, some of which are preserved solely in the Slavonic language. “This book is the first complete effort to show how some pseudepigraphical works develop several unique traditions about heavenly counterparts. It is particularly important for many scholars who do not have control of the Slavonic originals of the Ladder of Jacob and 2 Enoch. Orlov also draws on a broad range of unfamiliar sources, including Manichaean and Mandaean materials, which were often neglected by experts who previously investigated the heavenly counterpart imagery.” — Alexander Kulik, coauthor of Biblical Pseudepigrapha in Slavonic Tradition



Path of the Prophets

Path of the Prophets Author Barry L. Schwartz
ISBN-10 9780827613843
Release 2018
Pages 360
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Illuminating the ethical legacy of the biblical prophets, Path of the Prophets identifies the prophetic moment in the lives of eighteen biblical figures and demonstrates their compelling relevance to us today. While the Bible almost exclusively names men as prophets, Rabbi Barry L. Schwartz celebrates heroic, largely unknown biblical women such as Shiphrah, Tirzah, and Hannah. He also deepens readers' interpretations of more familiar biblical figures not generally thought of as prophets, such as Joseph, Judah, and Caleb. Schwartz introduces the prophets with creative, first-person retellings of their decisive experiences, followed by key biblical narratives, context, and analysis. He weighs our heroes' and heroines' legacies--their obstacles and triumphs--and considers how their ethical examples live on; he guides us on how to integrate biblical-ethical values into our lives; and he challenges each of us to walk the prophetic path today.



Reversing Hermon

Reversing Hermon Author Michael S. Heiser
ISBN-10 0998142638
Release 2017-03-15
Pages
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Reversing Hermon is a groundbreaking work. It unveils what most in the modern Church have never heard regarding how the story of the sin of the Watchers in 1 Enoch 6-16 helped frame the mission of Jesus, the messiah. Jews of the first century expected the messiah to reverse the impact of the Watchers' transgression. For Jews of Jesus' day, the Watchers were part of the explanation for why the world was so profoundly depraved. The messiah would not just revoke the claim of Satan on human souls and estrangement from God, solving the predicament of the Fall. He would also not only bring the nations back into relationship with the true God by defeating the principalities and powers that governed them. Jews also believed that the messiah would rescue humanity from self-destruction, the catalyst for which was the sin of the Watchers and the influence of what they had taught humankind. The role of Enoch's retelling of Genesis 6:1-4 in how New Testament writers wrote of Jesus and the cross has been largely lost to a modern audience. Reversing Hermon rectifies that situation. Topics include:* How the ancient Mesopotamian story of the apkallu aligns with Gen 6:1-4, was preserved in 1 Enoch, and sets the stage for the theme of reversing the evil of the Watchers* How the theme of reversing the transgression of the Watchers colors the gospel accounts of the birth of Jesus, his genealogy, and his ministry.* How the writings of Peter and Paul allude to the sin of the Watchers and present Jesus as overturning the disastrous effects of their sins against humanity.* How the descriptions of the antichrist, the end-times Day of the Lord, and the final judgment connect to Genesis 6 and the nephilim.Though every topic addressed in Reversing Hermon can be found in scholarly academic literature, Reversing Hermon is the first book to gather this information and make it accessible to Bible students everywhere.



Spirits and the Proclamation of Christ

Spirits and the Proclamation of Christ Author Chad T. Pierce
ISBN-10 3161508580
Release 2011
Pages 289
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Originally presented as the author's thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Durham under the title: Christ's proclamation to the imprisoned spirits: 1 Peter 3:18-22 in its tradition historical and literary contexts.



Enoch and the Gospel of Matthew

Enoch and the Gospel of Matthew Author Amy E. Richter
ISBN-10 9781621893929
Release 2012-07-18
Pages 242
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Matthew's Gospel contains material unique to it among the canonical Gospels. What is the background for this material? Why does the writer of Matthew's Gospel tell the story of Jesus in the way he does--including women in his genealogy, telling the story of the birth of Jesus in his particular way, and including the visit of the magi led by a star? Enoch and the Gospel of Matthew shows that the writer of Matthew was familiar with themes and traditions about the antediluvian patriarch Enoch, including the story of the fall of the angels called "watchers," who transgress their heavenly boundaries to engage in illicit relations with women and teach them forbidden arts. The Gospel writer shows that Jesus brings about the eschatological repair of the consequences of the watchers' fall as told in the Enochic legend. This study focuses on Matthew's genealogy and infancy narrative and also has implications for the study of women in Matthew, since it is often through the stories of women in Matthew that the repair of the watchers' transgression takes place.



The Early Enoch Tradition and the Synoptic Gospels

The Early Enoch Tradition and the Synoptic Gospels Author Loren T. Stuckenbruck
ISBN-10 0567668983
Release 2017-03-30
Pages 224
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In this volume leading lights from the world of Enochic studies examines the ways in which the early Enoch tradition intersects with the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke). The book begins with a contribution from James H. Charlesworth, which offers reflections on the Enoch tradition more broadly as a springboard for specific studies based upon the gospels. Contributions then follow which assess the presence of common themes and motifs in the synoptic gospels and in the Parables of Enoch. These include eschatological language, the presence of angels, anti-Imperial imagery, and references to sexual abstinence. The highly distinguished contributors include; James H. Charlesworth, Loren Stuckenbruck, Gabriella Gelardini and Rivka Nir.



New Perspectives on 2 Enoch

New Perspectives on 2 Enoch Author Andrei Orlov
ISBN-10 9789004230132
Release 2012-05-25
Pages 478
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This book presents a collection of papers from the fifth conference of the Enoch Seminar. The conference re-examined 2 Enoch, an early Jewish apocalyptic text previously known to scholars only in its Slavonic translation, in light of recently identified Coptic fragments.