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The Weight of the Vacuum

The Weight of the Vacuum Author Helge S. Kragh
ISBN-10 9783642550904
Release 2014-05-21
Pages 113
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The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for the discovery of cosmic acceleration due to dark energy, a discovery that is all the more perplexing as nobody knows what dark energy actually is. We put the modern concept of cosmological vacuum energy into historical context and show how it grew out of disparate roots in quantum mechanics (zero-point energy) and relativity theory (the cosmological constant, Einstein's “greatest blunder”). These two influences have remained strangely aloof and still co-exist in an uneasy alliance that is at the heart of the greatest crisis in theoretical physics, the cosmological-constant problem.



Medical Imaging Technology

Medical Imaging Technology Author Mark A Haidekker
ISBN-10 9781461470731
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 129
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Biomedical imaging is a relatively young discipline that started with Conrad Wilhelm Roentgen’s discovery of the x-ray in 1895. X-ray imaging was rapidly adopted in hospitals around the world. However, it was the advent of computerized data and image processing that made revolutionary new imaging modalities possible. Today, cross-sections and three-dimensional reconstructions of the organs inside the human body is possible with unprecedented speed, detail and quality. This book provides an introduction into the principles of image formation of key medical imaging modalities: X-ray projection imaging, x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, and radionuclide imaging. Recent developments in optical imaging are also covered. For each imaging modality, the introduction into the physical principles and sources of contrast is provided, followed by the methods of image formation, engineering aspects of the imaging devices, and a discussion of strengths and limitations of the modality. With this book, the reader gains a broad foundation of understanding and knowledge how today’s medical imaging devices operate. In addition, the chapters in this book can serve as an entry point for the in-depth study of individual modalities by providing the essential basics of each modality in a comprehensive and easy-to-understand manner. As such, this book is equally attractive as a textbook for undergraduate or graduate biomedical imaging classes and as a reference and self-study guide for more specialized in-depth studies.



The Chemical History of Color

The Chemical History of Color Author Mary Virginia Orna
ISBN-10 9783642326424
Release 2012-10-05
Pages 153
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In this brief, Mary Virginia Orna details the history of color from the chemical point of view. Beginning with the first recorded uses of color and ending in the development of our modern chemical industry, this rich, yet concise exposition shows us how color pervades every aspect of our lives. Our consciousness, our perceptions, our useful appliances and tools, our playthings, our entertainment, our health, and our diagnostic apparatus – all involve color and are based in no small part on chemistry.



Introduction to Cosmology

Introduction to Cosmology Author Barbara Ryden
ISBN-10 9781107154834
Release 2016-11-17
Pages 273
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A substantial update of this award-winning and highly regarded cosmology textbook, for advanced undergraduates in physics and astronomy.



Fundamentals of Plasma Physics

Fundamentals of Plasma Physics Author J. A. Bittencourt
ISBN-10 9781483293196
Release 2013-10-22
Pages 730
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A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.



Quantum Potential Physics Geometry and Algebra

Quantum Potential  Physics  Geometry and Algebra Author Ignazio Licata
ISBN-10 9783319003337
Release 2013-11-19
Pages 106
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Recently the interest in Bohm realist interpretation of quantum mechanics has grown. The important advantage of this approach lies in the possibility to introduce non-locality ab initio, and not as an “unexpected host”. In this book the authors give a detailed analysis of quantum potential, the non-locality term and its role in quantum cosmology and information. The different approaches to the quantum potential are analysed, starting from the original attempt to introduce a realism of particles trajectories (influenced by de Broglie’s pilot wave) to the recent dynamic interpretation provided by Goldstein, Durr, Tumulka and Zanghì, and the geometrodynamic picture, with suggestion about quantum gravity. Finally we focus on the algebraic reading of Hiley and Birkbeck school, that analyse the meaning of the non-local structure of the world, bringing important consequences for the space, time and information concepts.



Dictionnaire de physique

Dictionnaire de physique Author Richard Taillet
ISBN-10 9782807307445
Release 2018-01-23
Pages 976
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Ce dictionnaire définit plus de 6 450 termes relatifs à la physique, du vocabulaire de base aux termes spécialisés, en passant par les noms d'expériences et les biographies de nombreux physiciens.



The Shadow of Black Holes

The Shadow of Black Holes Author Arne Grenzebach
ISBN-10 9783319300665
Release 2016-05-07
Pages 94
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This book introduces an analytic method to describe the shadow of black holes. As an introduction, it presents a survey of the attempts to observe the shadow of galactic black holes. Based on a detailed discussion of the Plebański–Demiański class of space-times, the book derives analytical formulas for the photon regions and for the boundary curve of the shadow as seen by an observer in the domain of outer communication. It also analyzes how the shadow depends on the motion of the observer. For all cases, the photon regions and shadows are visualized for various values of the parameters. Finally, it considers how the analytical formulas can be used for calculating the horizontal and vertical angular diameters of the shadow, and estimates values for the black holes at the centers of our Galaxy near Sgr A* and of the neighboring galaxy M87.



Lightweight Landscape

Lightweight Landscape Author Alessandra Zanelli
ISBN-10 9783319216652
Release 2015-10-13
Pages 109
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This book explains how lightweight materials and structures can be deployed in buildings to meet high environmental and aesthetic standards and emphasizes how the concept of lightness in building technology and design dovetails with the desire to enhance landscape. The first part of the book, on lightweight construction, aims to foster the use of membranes within the specific climatic context and in particular considers how lightweight materials and innovative technologies can enrich the quality of temporary spaces. The second part focuses exclusively on landscape, presenting novel approaches in the search for visual lightness and the quest to improve urban spaces. Particular attention is paid to the Italian experience, where the traditional appreciation of brick and stone has limited the scope for use of lightweight structures and membrane materials, often relegating them to a secondary or inappropriate role. The reader will come to appreciate how this attitude demeans a very advanced productive sector and neglects the ancient tradition of temporary architecture.



QED

QED Author Richard P. Feynman
ISBN-10 9781400847464
Release 2014-10-26
Pages 192
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Celebrated for his brilliantly quirky insights into the physical world, Nobel laureate Richard Feynman also possessed an extraordinary talent for explaining difficult concepts to the general public. Here Feynman provides a classic and definitive introduction to QED (namely, quantum electrodynamics), that part of quantum field theory describing the interactions of light with charged particles. Using everyday language, spatial concepts, visualizations, and his renowned "Feynman diagrams" instead of advanced mathematics, Feynman clearly and humorously communicates both the substance and spirit of QED to the layperson. A. Zee's introduction places Feynman’s book and his seminal contribution to QED in historical context and further highlights Feynman’s uniquely appealing and illuminating style.



Regulatory Theory

Regulatory Theory Author Peter Drahos
ISBN-10 9781760461027
Release 2017-02-23
Pages 783
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This volume introduces readers to regulatory theory. Aimed at practitioners, postgraduate students and those interested in regulation as a cross-cutting theme in the social sciences, Regulatory Theory includes chapters on the social-psychological foundations of regulation as well as theories of regulation such as responsive regulation, smart regulation and nodal governance. It explores the key themes of compliance, legal pluralism, meta-regulation, the rule of law, risk, accountability, globalisation and regulatory capitalism. The environment, crime, health, human rights, investment, migration and tax are among the fields of regulation considered in this ground-breaking book. Each chapter introduces the reader to key concepts and ideas and contains suggestions for further reading. The contributors, who either are or have been connected to the Regulatory Institutions Network (RegNet) at The Australian National University, include John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Peter Grabosky, Neil Gunningham, Fiona Haines, Terry Halliday, David Levi-Faur, Christine Parker, Colin Scott and Clifford Shearing.



Beyond the Second Law

Beyond the Second Law Author Roderick C. Dewar
ISBN-10 9783642401541
Release 2013-12-02
Pages 434
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The Second Law, a cornerstone of thermodynamics, governs the average direction of dissipative, non-equilibrium processes. But it says nothing about their actual rates or the probability of fluctuations about the average. This interdisciplinary book, written and peer-reviewed by international experts, presents recent advances in the search for new non-equilibrium principles beyond the Second Law, and their applications to a wide range of systems across physics, chemistry and biology. Beyond The Second Law brings together traditionally isolated areas of non-equilibrium research and highlights potentially fruitful connections between them, with entropy production playing the unifying role. Key theoretical concepts include the Maximum Entropy Production principle, the Fluctuation Theorem, and the Maximum Entropy method of statistical inference. Applications of these principles are illustrated in such diverse fields as climatology, cosmology, crystal growth morphology, Earth system science, environmental physics, evolutionary biology and technology, fluid turbulence, microbial biogeochemistry, plasma physics, and radiative transport, using a wide variety of analytical and experimental techniques. Beyond The Second Law will appeal to students and researchers wishing to gain an understanding of entropy production and its central place in the science of non-equilibrium systems – both in detail and in terms of the bigger picture.



De Sitter Projective Relativity

De Sitter Projective Relativity Author Ignazio Licata
ISBN-10 9783319522715
Release 2017-03-13
Pages 108
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This book presents the Projective approach to de Sitter Relativity. It traces the development of renewed interest in models of the universe at constant positive curvature such as "vacuum" geometry. The De Sitter Theory of Relativity, formulated in 1917 with Willem De Sitter's solution of the Einstein equations, was used in different fields during the 1950s and 1960s, in the work of H. Bacry, J.M. LevyLeblond and F.Gursey, to name some important contributors. From the 1960s to 1980s, L. Fantappié and G. Arcidiacono provided an elegant group approach to the De Sitter universe putting the basis for special and general projective relativity. Today such suggestions flow into a unitary scenario, and this way the De Sitter Relativity is no more a "missing opportunity" (F. Dyson, 1972), but has a central role in theoretical physics. In this volume a systematic presentation is given of the De Sitter Projective relativity, with the recent developments in projective general relativity and quantum cosmology.



One Dimensional nanostructures

One Dimensional nanostructures Author Zhenyu Li
ISBN-10 9783642364273
Release 2013-03-21
Pages 141
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One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Electrospinning Technique and Unique Nanofibers is a comprehensive book depicting the electrospinning technique and related 1D unique electrospun nanofibers. The first part of the book focuses on electrospinning technique, with chapters describing Electrospinning setup, electrospinning theories, and related working parameter. The second part of the book describes in detail specific topics on how to control the electrospun fiber properties such as how to control the fiber direction, how to control the fiber surface morphology, how to control the fiber structure, and how to construct 3D structures by electrospun fibers. The final part of the book depicts the applications of the electrospun nanofibers, with sections describing in detail specific fields such as electrospun nanofiber reinforcement, filtration, electronic devices, lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells, biomedical field, and so on. One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Electrospinning Technique and Unique Nanofibers is designed to bring state-of-the-art on electrospinning together into a single book and will be valuable resource for scientists in the electrospinning field and other scientists involved in biomedical field, mechanical field, materials, and energy field. Dr. Zhenyu Li is an associate professor at the Dept. of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China. Currently, he also holds the position in Australian Future Fibres Research & Innovation Centre, Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Dr. Ce Wang is a professor at the Dept. of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China.



Magneto Fluid Dynamics

Magneto Fluid Dynamics Author Paul Lorrain
ISBN-10 9780387472904
Release 2007-10-31
Pages 319
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This book provides an understanding of the physics at work in sunspots and solar coronal loops, and offers a new approach to Magneto-Fluid-Dynamics (or Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics).The book stresses the use of electric currents in Magneto-Fluid-Dynamics. As a rule, authors discuss magnetic field lines without referring to the required electric currents. It also stresses the importance of electric space charges inside conductors that move in magnetic fields.



An Introduction to Plasma Astrophysics and Magnetohydrodynamics

An Introduction to Plasma Astrophysics and Magnetohydrodynamics Author Marcel Goossens
ISBN-10 1402014333
Release 2003-08-31
Pages 203
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Most of the visible matter in the universe exists in the plasma state. Plasmas are of major importance for space physics, solar physics, and astrophysics. On Earth they are essential for magnetic controlled thermonuclear fusion. This textbook collects lecture notes from a one-semester course taught at the K.U. Leuven to advanced undergraduate students in applied mathematics and physics. A particular strength of this book is that it provides a low threshold introduction to plasmas with an emphasis on first principles and fundamental concepts and properties. The discussion of plasma models is to a large extent limited to Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with its merits and limitations clearly explained. MHD provides the students on their first encounter with plasmas, with a powerful plasma model that they can link to familiar classic fluid dynamics. The solar wind is studied as an example of hydrodynamics and MHD at work in solar physics and astrophysics.



The Rare Earth Elements

The Rare Earth Elements Author J.H.L. Voncken
ISBN-10 9783319268095
Release 2015-12-24
Pages 127
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This book deals with the rare earth elements (REE), which are a series of 17 transition metals: scandium, yttrium and the lanthanide series of elements (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium). They are relatively unknown to the wider public, despite their numerous applications and their critical role in many high-tech applications, such as high-temperature superconductors, phosphors (for energy-saving lamps, flat-screen monitors and flat-screen televisions), rechargeable batteries (household and automotive), very strong permanent magnets (used for instance in wind turbines and hard-disk drives), or even in a medical MRI application. This book describes the history of their discovery, the major REE ore minerals and the major ore deposits that are presently being exploited (or are planned to be exploited in the very near future), the physical and chemical properties of REEs, the mineral processing of REE concentrates and their extractive metallurgy, the applications of these elements, their economic aspects and the influential economical role of China, and finally the recycling of the REE, which is an emerging field.