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Theory Collectve Behav Ils 258

Theory Collectve Behav Ils 258 Author Neil J. Smelser
ISBN-10 9781136277900
Release 2013-10-15
Pages 448
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First Published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.



Complex Economics

Complex Economics Author Alan Kirman
ISBN-10 9781136941672
Release 2010-09-13
Pages 272
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The economic crisis is also a crisis for economic theory. Most analyses of the evolution of the crisis invoke three themes, contagion, networks and trust, yet none of these play a major role in standard macroeconomic models. What is needed is a theory in which these aspects are central. The direct interaction between individuals, firms and banks does not simply produce imperfections in the functioning of the economy but is the very basis of the functioning of a modern economy. This book suggests a way of analysing the economy which takes this point of view. The economy should be considered as a complex adaptive system in which the agents constantly react to, influence and are influenced by, the other individuals in the economy. In such systems which are familiar from statistical physics and biology for example, the behaviour of the aggregate cannot be deduced from the behaviour of the average, or "representative" individual. Just as the organised activity of an ants’ nest cannot be understood from the behaviour of a "representative ant" so macroeconomic phenomena should not be assimilated to those associated with the "representative agent". This book provides examples where this can clearly be seen. The examples range from Schelling’s model of segregation, to contributions to public goods, the evolution of buyer seller relations in fish markets, to financial models based on the foraging behaviour of ants. The message of the book is that coordination rather than efficiency is the central problem in economics. How do the myriads of individual choices and decisions come to be coordinated? How does the economy or a market, "self organise" and how does this sometimes result in major upheavals, or to use the phrase from physics, "phase transitions"? The sort of system described in this book is not in equilibrium in the standard sense, it is constantly changing and moving from state to state and its very structure is always being modified. The economy is not a ship sailing on a well-defined trajectory which occasionally gets knocked off course. It is more like the slime described in the book "emergence", constantly reorganising itself so as to slide collectively in directions which are neither understood nor necessarily desired by its components.



Social Defence Ils 212

Social Defence Ils 212 Author Marc Ancel
ISBN-10 9781136268359
Release 2013-08-21
Pages 244
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First published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.



Sociological Theory and Collective Subjectivity

Sociological Theory and Collective Subjectivity Author J. Domingues
ISBN-10 9780230376342
Release 1995-11-01
Pages 205
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The main theme of this book is collective subjectivity, analysed especially in connection with the work of Marx, Parsons, Giddens and Habermas, but also addressing the manifold tendencies of sociological theory, from its inception to the present. The book supports the idea that there is a conceptual shortcoming in the most relevant contemporary research programs in sociological theory, despite some recent efforts to re-develop concepts of collective actor, class or social movement. After the fragmentation of the sixties a number of synthetical approaches emerged. Some writers, such as Touraine, Laclau and Mouffe, Olson, Coleman, Hindess, Mouzelis and Eder have proposed some versions of concepts of collective subjectivity, focusing on collective actors, classes, genders, social movements, organisations and collective utilitarian action. But they do not, in terms of general conceptual construction, go further than Parsons and Marx: they often fail to match their original formulations. The concept of collective subjectivity is introduced to bring together these diverse approaches, which are synthesised and receive a more general definition. Moreover, this new concept is directly linked to those contemporary syntheses.



Discovery of Grounded Theory

Discovery of Grounded Theory Author Barney Glaser
ISBN-10 9781351522151
Release 2017-07-05
Pages
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Most writing on sociological method has been concerned with how accurate facts can be obtained and how theory can thereby be more rigorously tested. In The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss address the equally Important enterprise of how the discovery of theory from data?systematically obtained and analyzed in social research?can be furthered. The discovery of theory from data?grounded theory?is a major task confronting sociology, for such a theory fits empirical situations, and is understandable to sociologists and laymen alike. Most important, it provides relevant predictions, explanations, interpretations, and applications. In Part I of the book, "Generation Theory by Comparative Analysis," the authors present a strategy whereby sociologists can facilitate the discovery of grounded theory, both substantive and formal. This strategy involves the systematic choice and study of several comparison groups. In Part II, The Flexible Use of Data," the generation of theory from qualitative, especially documentary, and quantitative data Is considered. In Part III, "Implications of Grounded Theory," Glaser and Strauss examine the credibility of grounded theory. The Discovery of Grounded Theory is directed toward improving social scientists' capacity for generating theory that will be relevant to their research. While aimed primarily at sociologists, it will be useful to anyone Interested In studying social phenomena?political, educational, economic, industrial? especially If their studies are based on qualitative data.



Reassembling the Social

Reassembling the Social Author Bruno Latour
ISBN-10 9780199256044
Release 2005-07-28
Pages 301
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French sociologist Bruno Latour has previously written about the relationship between people, science and technology. In this book he sets out his own ideas about 'actor network theory' and its relevance to management and organisation theory.



Analytical Sociology and Social Mechanisms

Analytical Sociology and Social Mechanisms Author Pierre Demeulenaere
ISBN-10 9781139497961
Release 2011-03-24
Pages
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Mechanisms are very much a part of social life. For example, we can see that inequality has tended to increase over time, and that cities can become segregated. But how do such mechanisms work? Analytical sociology is an influential approach to sociology which holds that explanations of social phenomena should focus on the social mechanisms that bring them about. This book evaluates the major features of this approach, focusing on the significance of the notion of mechanism. Leading scholars seek to answer a number of questions in order to explore all the relevant dimensions of mechanism-based explanations in social sciences. How do social mechanisms link together individual actions and social environments? What is the role of multi-agent modelling in the conceptualization of mechanisms? Does the notion of mechanism solve the problem of relevance in social sciences explanations?



The Sociology of Space

The Sociology of Space Author Martina Löw
ISBN-10 9781349695683
Release 2016-09-09
Pages 303
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In this book, the author develops a relational concept of space that encompasses social structure, the material world of objects and bodies, and the symbolic dimension of the social world. Löw’s guiding principle is the assumption that space emerges in the interplay between objects, structures and actions. Based on a critical discussion of classic theories of space, Löw develops a new dynamic theory of space that accounts for the relational context in which space is constituted. This innovative view on the interdependency of material, social, and symbolic dimensions of space also permits a new perspective on architecture and urban development.



The Group in Society

The Group in Society Author John Gastil
ISBN-10 9781544340333
Release 2009-07-07
Pages 328
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The Group in Society meets the challenges of teaching courses on small groups by revealing the full complexity of small groups and their place in society. It shows students the value of learning how to carefully study a group's history and context, rather than merely learning a fixed set of group participation skills. This text brings together disparate theories and research (from communication, social psychology, organizational and managerial studies, and sociology) in a way that helps students make sense of a complex body of scholarship on groups. Features & Benefits Part I – Theorizing Groups: builds a strong theoretical foundation, exploring social theory and the group, forming and joining groups, the life and death of the group, and changing society through group life Part II – Understanding Groups in Context: explores the histories, purposes, memberships of a variety of groups—including juries, families, executive committees, study groups, and political action groups—thus enabling the student reader to speak clearly about group formation, norms, roles, tasks, and relationships. Detailed end-of-chapter case studies explicitly connect with the concepts, theories, and empirical findings introduced in each respective chapter; examples include the powerful group bonds of the modern terrorist cell; the wired network of groups in the anti-Globalization movement; and the deliberation of a jury in a murder trial Teaching & Learning Ancillaries Teaching resources are available at http://groupinsociety.la.psu.edu/ and include chapter summaries, discussion questions, and practical applications; a sample course schedule; Embedded Systems Framework PowerPoint slides; group project assignments, group project worksheets, and a group project description and contract; and links to useful Web resources such as small group teaching resources and active wikis on small groups. An open-access student study site at www.sagepub.com/gastilstudy features e-flashcards, practice quizzes, and other resources to help students enhance their comprehension and improve their grade.



Digital Library Use

Digital Library Use Author Ann P. Bishop
ISBN-10 0262025442
Release 2003
Pages 341
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Viewing digital libraries as sociotechnical systems, networks of people and technology interacting with society.



The Interpretation of Cultures

The Interpretation of Cultures Author Clifford Geertz
ISBN-10 9780465093564
Release 2017-08-15
Pages 576
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In The Interpretation of Cultures, the most original anthropologist of his generation moved far beyond the traditional confines of his discipline to develop an important new concept of culture. This groundbreaking book, winner of the 1974 Sorokin Award of the American Sociological Association, helped define for an entire generation of anthropologists what their field is ultimately about.



Rethinking Architecture

Rethinking Architecture Author Neil Leach
ISBN-10 9781134796281
Release 2005-12-20
Pages 432
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Brought together for the first time - the seminal writing on architecture by key philosophers and cultural theorist of the twentieth century. Issues around the built environment are increasingly central to the study of the social sciences and humanities. The essays offer a refreshing take on the question of architecture and provocatively rethink many of the accepted tenets of architecture theory from a broader cultural perspective. The book represents a careful selection of the very best theoretical writings on the ideas which have shaped our cities and our experiences of architecture. As such, Rethinking Architecture provides invaluable core source material for students on a range of courses.



The Atlas of New Librarianship

The Atlas of New Librarianship Author R. David Lankes
ISBN-10 0262529920
Release 2016-08-26
Pages 424
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Libraries have existed for millennia, but today the library field is searching for solid footing in an increasingly fragmented (and increasingly digital) information environment. What is librarianship when it is unmoored from cataloging, books, buildings, and committees? In "The Atlas of New Librarianship," R. David Lankes offers a guide to this new landscape for practitioners. He describes a new librarianship based not on books and artifacts but on knowledge and learning; and he suggests a new mission for librarians: to improve society through facilitating knowledge creation in their communities. The vision for a new librarianship must go beyond finding library-related uses for information technology and the Internet; it must provide a durable foundation for the field. Lankes recasts librarianship and library practice using the fundamental concept that knowledge is created though conversation. New librarians approach their work as facilitators of conversation; they seek to enrich, capture, store, and disseminate the conversations of their communities. To help librarians navigate this new terrain, Lankes offers a map, a visual representation of the field that can guide explorations of it; more than 140 Agreements, statements about librarianship that range from relevant theories to examples of practice; and Threads, arrangements of Agreements to explain key ideas, covering such topics as conceptual foundations and skills and values. Agreement Supplements at the end of the book offer expanded discussions. Although it touches on theory as well as practice, the Atlas is meant to be a tool: textbook, conversation guide, platform for social networking, and call to action. Copublished with the Association of College & Research Libraries.



Understanding Mobilities for Designing Contemporary Cities

Understanding Mobilities for Designing Contemporary Cities Author Paola Pucci
ISBN-10 9783319225784
Release 2015-12-08
Pages 274
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This book explores mobilities as a key to understanding the practices that both frame and generate contemporary everyday life in the urban context. At the same time, it investigates the challenges arising from the interpretation of mobility as a socio-spatial phenomenon both in the social sciences and in urban studies. Leading sociologists, economists, urban planners and architects address the ways in which spatial mobilities contribute to producing diversified uses of the city and describe forms and rhythms of different life practices, including unexpected uses and conflicts. The individual sections of the book focus on the role of mobility in transforming contemporary cities; the consequences of interpreting mobility as a socio-spatial phenomenon for urban projects and policies; the conflicts and inequalities generated by the co-presence of different populations due to mobility and by the interests gathered around major mobility projects; and the use of new data and mapping of mobilities to enhance comprehension of cities. The theoretical discussion is complemented by references to practical experiences, helping readers gain a broader understanding of mobilities in relation to the capacity to analyze, plan and design contemporary cities.



Nature and Society

Nature and Society Author Philippe Descola
ISBN-10 9781134827152
Release 2003-12-16
Pages 320
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The contributors to this book focus on the relationship between nature and society from a variety of theoretical and ethnographic perspectives. Their work draws upon recent developments in social theory, biology, ethnobiology, epistemology, sociology of science, and a wide array of ethnographic case studies -- from Amazonia, the Solomon Islands, Malaysia, the Mollucan Islands, rural comunities from Japan and north-west Europe, urban Greece, and laboratories of molecular biology and high-energy physics. The discussion is divided into three parts, emphasising the problems posed by the nature-culture dualism, some misguided attempts to respond to these problems, and potential avenues out of the current dilemmas of ecological discourse.



Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Author World Health Organization
ISBN-10 9241547170
Release 2007-01-01
Pages 86
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This publication provides guidance on reducing disability and premature deaths from coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease in people at high risk who have not yet experienced a cardiovascular event. People with established cardiovascular disease are at very high risk of recurrent events and are not the subject of these guidelines. They have been addressed in previous WHO guidelines. The risk prediction charts that accompany these guidelines allow treatment to be targeted according to simple predictions of absolute cardiovascular risk. Recommendations are made for management of major cardiovascular risk factors through changes in lifestyle and prophylactic drug therapies. The guidelines provide a framework for the development of national guidance on prevention of cardiovascular disease that takes into account the particular political economic social and medical circumstances.



The Death and Life of Great American Cities

The Death and Life of Great American Cities Author Jane Jacobs
ISBN-10 9780525432852
Release 2016-07-20
Pages 480
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Thirty years after its publication, The Death and Life of Great American Cities was described by The New York Times as "perhaps the most influential single work in the history of town planning....[It] can also be seen in a much larger context. It is first of all a work of literature; the descriptions of street life as a kind of ballet and the bitingly satiric account of traditional planning theory can still be read for pleasure even by those who long ago absorbed and appropriated the book's arguments." Jane Jacobs, an editor and writer on architecture in New York City in the early sixties, argued that urban diversity and vitality were being destroyed by powerful architects and city planners. Rigorous, sane, and delightfully epigrammatic, Jacobs's small masterpiece is a blueprint for the humanistic management of cities. It is sensible, knowledgeable, readable, indispensable. The author has written a new foreword for this Modern Library edition.