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Tough Choices

Tough Choices Author Toby Seddon
ISBN-10 9780191634239
Release 2012-05-17
Pages 236
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In recent years, British drug policy has undergone a transformation: tackling 'drug-driven' crime through criminal justice interventions has arguably become the central priority and focus. The 'criminal justice turn', as the authors refer to current UK drugs policy, is based on three simple and linked assumptions: drug-driven property crime is a major driver of local area crime rates, especially in deprived neighbourhoods; the criminal justice system can be used to target these drug-motivated offenders and direct them into treatment; and treatment can lead to significant reductions in their offending. Tough Choices: Risk, Security and the Criminalization of Drug Policy explores a series of questions about the 'criminal justice' turn in British drugs policy, from why it happened at all to what led policy to unfold in the way that it did, by analyzing policy documents and over 200 interviews conducted with key players in the policy development and implementation process. At the practice level, the authors explore how the strategic vision of the drug-crime 'problem' has shaped the ways in which drug-using offenders are identified, targeted and managed - in other words, why the implementation of the Drug Interventions Programme on the ground has taken the forms that it has. This is addressed through a detailed examination of practice in three local areas. Both the emergence of this new policy direction and its implementation in practice can best be understood as part of a wider transformation in governance in which risk-based thinking has become central to the ways in which we seek to address our contemporary insecurities. The book is based on a 30-month ESRC-funded research project on the Drug Interventions Programme and draws on the extensive empirical data generated during the project.



Understanding Drug Use and Abuse

Understanding Drug Use and Abuse Author Benjamin P. Bowser
ISBN-10 9781137402127
Release 2014-05-30
Pages 232
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Addressing drug use and abuse as a global phenomenon, this text draws on contemporary and international research findings to examine the causes of drug use in different countries and to explore different policy responses to its prevention and treatment. It is an invaluable resource for students, practitioners and anyone concerned with drug use.



Explaining Criminal Careers

Explaining Criminal Careers Author John F. MacLeod
ISBN-10 9780191645259
Release 2012-08-23
Pages 272
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This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 International licence. It is free to read at Oxford Scholarship Online and offered as a free PDF download from OUP and selected open access locations. Explaining Criminal Careers presents a simple but influential theory of crime, conviction and reconviction. The assumptions of the theory are derived directly from a detailed analysis of cohort samples extracted from the Home Office Offenders Index - a unique database which contains records of all criminal (standard list) convictions in England and Wales since 1963. In particular, the theory explains the well-known Age/Crime curve. Based on the idea that there are only three types of offenders, who commit crimes at either high or low (constant) rates and have either a high or low (constant) risk of reoffending, this simple theory makes exact quantitative predictions about criminal careers and age-crime curves. Purely from the birth-rate over the second part of the 20th century, the theory accurately predicts (to within 2%) the prison population contingent on a given sentencing policy. The theory also suggests that increasing the probability of conviction after each offence is the most effective way of reducing crime, although there is a role for treatment programmes for some offenders. The authors indicate that crime is influenced by the operation of the Criminal Justice System and that offenders do not 'grow out' of crime as commonly supposed; they are persuaded to stop or decide to stop after (repeated) convictions, with a certain fraction of offenders desisting after each conviction. Simply imprisoning offenders will not reduce crime either by individual deterrence or by incapacitation. With comprehensive explanations of the formulae used and complete mathematical appendices allowing for individual interpretations and further development of the theory, Explaining Criminal Careers represents an innovative and meticulous investigation into criminal activity and the influences behind it. With clear policy implications and a wealth of original and significant discussions, this book marks a ground-breaking chapter in the criminological debate surrounding criminal careers.



Beyond the Banality of Evil

Beyond the Banality of Evil Author Augustine Brannigan
ISBN-10 0199674620
Release 2013-08-22
Pages 288
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Offering the author's reflections on how to interpret genocide as a crime, this book endeavours to understand how the theories of criminal motivation might shed light on these stunning events and make them comprehensible, including a new and compelling account of the dynamics of the 1994 Rwanda genocide.



A History of Drugs

A History of Drugs Author Toby Seddon
ISBN-10 9781134019007
Release 2009-12-03
Pages 200
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Why are some psychoactive substances regarded as ‘dangerous drugs’, to be controlled by the criminal law within a global prohibition regime, whilst others – from alcohol and tobacco, through to those we call ‘medicines’ – are seen and regulated very differently? A History of Drugs traces a genealogy of the construction and governance of the ‘drug problem’ over the past 200 years, calling into question some of the most fundamental ideas in this field: from ‘addiction’ to the very concept of ‘drugs’. At the heart of the book is the claim that it was with the emergence in the late eighteenth century of modern liberal capitalism, with its distinctive emphasis on freedom, that our concerns about the consumption of some of these substances began to grow. And, indeed, notions of freedom, free will and responsibility remain central to the drug question today. Pursuing an innovative inter-disciplinary approach, A History of Drugs provides an informed and insightful account of the origins of contemporary drug policy. It will be essential reading for students and academics working in law, criminology, sociology, social policy, history and political science.



Punishment and Madness

Punishment and Madness Author Toby Seddon
ISBN-10 9781135308438
Release 2007-03-12
Pages 216
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The focus of this book is on the government of prisoners with mental health problems in England and Wales over the last twenty-five years. The wider context and backdrop to the book is the shift to 'late modernity', which, since the 1970s has seen massive structural change in most Western societies, affecting the social, economic and cultural spheres, as well as the field of crime and punishment. This book investigates whether these profound transformations have also led to a reconfiguring of responses to mentally vulnerable offenders who end up in prison. Specifically, it explores how this group of prisoners has come to be viewed increasingly as sources of 'risk', requiring 'management' or containment, rather than as people suitable for therapeutic responses. The book draws on primary research carried out by the author, including interviews with key informants involved in the field during this period, such as former cabinet ministers, senior civil servants, campaigners and academics. In conducting this investigation, the author has developed a method of research which combines and synthesizes different forms of analysis to create a novel approach to socio-historical research.



Not Just Deserts

Not Just Deserts Author John Braithwaite
ISBN-10 9780198240563
Release 1992
Pages 229
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* A new approach to sentencing Not Just Deserts inaugurates a radical shift in the research agenda of criminology. The authors attack currently fashionable retributivist theories of punishment, arguing that the criminal justice system is so integrated that sentencing policy has to be considered in the system-wide context. They offer a comprehensive theory of criminal justice which draws on a philosophical view of the good and the right, and which points the way to practical intervention in the real world of incremental reform. They put the case for a criminal justice system which maximizes freedom in the old republican sense of the term, and which they call `dominion'.



Victims Crime and Society

Victims  Crime and Society Author Pamela Davies
ISBN-10 9781473910911
Release 2017-04-13
Pages 304
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This book provides a thorough account of victimisation across the social spectrum of class, race, age and gender. The second edition has been fully revised and expanded, with two parts now spanning the key perspectives and issues in victimology. Covering theoretical, social and political contexts, the book: Includes new chapters on defining and constructing victims, fear and vulnerability, sexuality, white collar crime and the implications of crime policy on victims Examines a global range of historical and theoretical perspectives in victimology and features a new chapter on researching victims of crime Reinforces your learning through critical thinking sections, future research suggestions, chapter summaries and a glossary of key terms Now includes a companion website, complete with links to relevant journal articles in victimology. Victims, Crime and Society is the essential text for your studies in victimology across criminology, criminal justice, community safety, youth justice and related areas.



Scandinavian Penal History Culture and Prison Practice

Scandinavian Penal History  Culture and Prison Practice Author Peter Scharff Smith
ISBN-10 9781137585295
Release 2017-07-28
Pages 540
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This book draws on historical and cross-disciplinary studies to critically examine penal practices in Scandinavia. The Nordic countries are often hailed by international observers as ‘model societies’, with egalitarian welfare policies, low rates of poverty, humane social policies and human rights oriented internal agendas. This book, however, paints a much more nuanced picture of the welfare policies, ideologies and social control in strong centralistic states. Based on extensive new empirical data, leading Nordic and international scholars discuss the relationship between prison conditions in Scandinavia and Scandinavian social policy more generally, and argue that it is not always liberating and constructive to be embraced by a powerful welfare state. This book is essential reading for researchers of state punishment in Scandinavia, and it is highly relevant for anyone interested in the ‘Nordic Model’ of social policy.



Regulation and Criminal Justice

Regulation and Criminal Justice Author Hannah Quirk
ISBN-10 9781139493994
Release 2010-12-23
Pages
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While regulatory institutions and strategies have been the subject of increasing academic attention, there has been limited application of regulatory theories to criminal justice scholarship. This collection of essays from a range of outstanding international scholars adopts a critical, inter-disciplinary approach, providing an innovative application of regulatory theory to the practice of criminal justice and offering suggestions for further research. Part I explores the aims and values of criminal justice and other regulatory networks and the synergies and tensions between these fields; Part II examines criminal justice as a regulatory force to control 'deviant' and anti-social behaviour and Part III examines the regulation and oversight of criminal justice through the operation of prison inspectorates and explores notions of responsive justice.



The SAGE Handbook of Criminological Theory

The SAGE Handbook of Criminological Theory Author Eugene McLaughlin
ISBN-10 9781412920384
Release 2010-07-21
Pages 532
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An indispensable international resource, The SAGE Handbook of Criminological Theory provides readers with a clear overview of criminological theory, enabling them to reflect critically upon the traditional, emergent and desirable theoretical positions of the discipline.This handbook is essential for libraries and scholars of all levels studying the rapidly developing, interdisciplinary field of criminology.



Crime and Justice at the Millennium

Crime and Justice at the Millennium Author Marvin E. Wolfgang
ISBN-10 0792375920
Release 2002
Pages 404
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The major theme of this Festschrift will be state-of-the-art criminology at the millennium and its impact into the 21st century. The editors have solicited major figures in contemporary criminology to elucidate the current state and future prospects of criminology at the turn of the century. It is appropriate that such a volume be produced in honor of Marvin E. Wolfgang, the most influential criminologist in the English-speaking world. Those invited to contribute were students or colleagues of Professor Wolfgang and are themselves distinguished criminologists. They represent criminology both of the past and the future. The appeal of the current book is not that it honors Marvin Wolfgang, but rather that it provides an accounting of where the discipline of criminology currently stands and its future directions. Professor Marvin E. Wolfgang was unsurpassed as a criminologist, distinguished mentor, and gentleman. A book designed to contribute to the most contemporary debates in criminology is a most fitting tribute.



What is to be done about violence against women

What is to be done about violence against women Author Elizabeth Wilson
ISBN-10 UOM:39015013526150
Release 1983-04-28
Pages 256
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What is to be done about violence against women has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from What is to be done about violence against women also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full What is to be done about violence against women book for free.



Crime and Public Policy

Crime and Public Policy Author James Q. Wilson
ISBN-10 9780199968237
Release 2012-06-01
Pages 656
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Crime in the United States has fluctuated considerably over the past thirty years, as have the policy approaches to deal with it. During this time criminologists and other scholars have helped to shed light on the role of incarceration, prevention, drugs, guns, policing, and numerous other aspects to crime control. Yet the latest research is rarely heard in public discussions and is often missing from the desks of policymakers. This book accessibly summarizes the latest scientific information on the causes of crime and evidence about what does and does not work to control it. Thoroughly revised and updated, this new version of Crime and Public Policy will include twenty chapters and five new substantial entries. As with previous editions, each essay reviews the existing literature, discusses the methodological rigor of the studies, identifies what policies and programs the studies suggest, and then points to policies now implemented that fail to reflect the evidence. The chapters cover the principle institutions of the criminal justice system (juvenile justice, police, prisons, probation and parole, sentencing), how broader aspects of social life inhibit or encourage crime (biology, schools, families, communities), and topics currently generating a great deal of attention (criminal activities of gangs, sex offenders, prisoner reentry, changing crime rates). With contributions from trusted, leading scholars, Crime and Public Policy offers the most comprehensive and balanced guide to how the latest and best social science research informs the understanding of crime and its control for policymakers, community leaders, and students of crime and criminal justice.



Serious Offenders

Serious Offenders Author Barry S. Godfrey
ISBN-10 9780199594665
Release 2010
Pages 241
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Serious Offenders examines the criminal careers of persistent offenders in northwest England between the 1840s and 1940s. It explores the triggers that propelled minor offenders towards serious persistent offending and draws on the lessons to be learnt about the regulation and surveillance of serious offenders.



Media Crime and Racism

Media  Crime and Racism Author Monish Bhatia
ISBN-10 9783319717760
Release 2018-04-06
Pages 391
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Media, Crime and Racism draws together contributions from scholars at the leading edge of their field across three continents to present contemporary and longstanding debates exploring the roles played by media and the state in racialising crime and criminalising racialised minorities. Comprised of empirically rich accounts and theoretically informed analysis, this dynamic text offers readers a critical and in-depth examination of contemporary social and criminal justice issues as they pertain to racialised minorities and the media. Chapters demonstrate the myriad ways in which racialised ‘others’ experience demonisation, exclusion, racist abuse and violence licensed – and often induced – by the state and the media. Together, they also offer original and nuanced analysis of how these processes can be experienced differently dependent on geography, political context and local resistance. This collection critically reflects on a number of globally significant topics including the vilification of Muslim minorities, the portrayal of the refugee ‘crisis’ and the representations and resistance of Indigenous and Black communities. This volume demonstrates that processes of racialisation and criminalisation in media and the state cannot be understood without reference to how they are underscored and inflected by gender and power. Above all, the contributors to this volume demonstrate the resistance of racialised minorities in localised contexts across the globe: against racialisation and criminalisation and in pursuit of racial justice.



Criminal Liability for Serious Traffic Offences

Criminal Liability for Serious Traffic Offences Author Alwin van Dijk
ISBN-10 9789462364660
Release 2017-12-17
Pages 227
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The criminal law on serious traffic offenses presents legislators with numerous controversial issues. One such issue is when severe consequences are matched with low moral culpability. How should the law deal with a driver who kills someone because she failed to see the person when looking? Another controversial issue concerns highly culpable behavior that remains without serious consequences. How should the law cope with a driver who nearly kills someone when overtaking recklessly? The traffic context generates many hard cases that call the outermost boundaries of general doctrinal concepts like intent, negligence, or causation into question. This book contains an international collection of essays on criminal liability for serious traffic offenses. With a focus on England/Wales, the Netherlands, France, Germany, and Spain, the book reveals that there are enormous differences in both drafting and interpretation of serious traffic offenses. Additionally, it elaborates on the role of culpability and harm in sentencing, traffic-psychological insights relevant to accident causation, and the concept of conditional intent in relation to extremely dangerous traffic behavior. (Series: Governance & Recht - Vol. 11) [Subject: Criminal Law, Traffic Law, Comparative Law]