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Toxicological Risk Assessment for Beginners

Toxicological Risk Assessment for Beginners Author Jose Torres
ISBN-10 9783319127514
Release 2015-03-27
Pages 250
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This book serves as a comprehensive introductory guide to the practical aspects of risk assessment. Chapters include clearly defined objectives and summaries. The book includes: hazard identification, dose-response, exposure assessment, risk characterization, chemical mixtures, epidemiology, emerging issues and global perspectives with accessible language. The book concludes with a set of hypothetical case studies. Toxicological Risk Assessment for Beginners aims not to create an expert, but rather to provide readers with their first understanding of the risk assessment topic. This book was designed with the student in mind. We simplify a complex process for beginners and balance theory with practical aspects, but remain fluid enough to increase difficulty with case studies. By incorporating an action based, step by step approach to learning the risk assessment process, this book provides its readers with an elementary understanding of how the risk assessment process is initiated, developed and finished, making it a valuable guide for graduate students, post-doctoral fellows and early career scientists in industry.



Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals

Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals Author Elsa Nielsen
ISBN-10 1420006940
Release 2008-02-21
Pages 448
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Unlike many existing books on toxicology that cover either toxicity of a particular substance or toxicity of chemicals on particular organ systems, Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals: A Practical Guide lays out the principle activities of conducting a toxicological risk assessment, including international approaches and methods for the risk assessment of chemical substances. It illustrates each step in the process: hazard identification, a dose response assessment, and exposure assessment. The book also summarizes the basic concepts of interaction of chemicals in mixtures and discusses various approaches to testing such mixtures. Features: Addresses standards from all international regulatory agencies Presents the steps in risk assessment, including hazard identification, exposure assessment, and risk characterization Covers the assessment of multiple chemical exposures or chemical mixtures Contains data from both human and animal studies Explains the linearized multi-stage mathematical model widely used by the US EPA for characterizing



Toxicology and Risk Assessment

Toxicology and Risk Assessment Author Anna M. Fan
ISBN-10 9789814613392
Release 2015-03-04
Pages 1426
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The presence of chemicals in our environment is a subject of intense interest owing to the many potential adverse health effects to humans following exposure to these chemicals. The principles and practices of risk assessment are used to assess the associated health risks to provide a scientific and health basis for guidance or regulatory standards development and risk management decision making for public health protection. This book compiles, discusses, and presents cutting-edge research data and methodology in performing risk assessment of some major chemicals of concern in our environment. It also discusses the complexity of the scientific databases, the available and updated methodology, emerging issues, limitations in knowledge and methods, considerations of developmental and age sensitivities, use of defaults, case samples on results in risk assessment and risk management, and current and future perspectives. The editors are prominent in the field of environmental toxicology, risk assessment, and chemical regulations. This book will appeal to those interested in evaluating the human health effects of exposure to chemicals in the environment and the associated assessments and findings.



Toxicology and Risk Assessment A Comprehensive Introduction

Toxicology and Risk Assessment  A Comprehensive Introduction Author Helmut Greim
ISBN-10 9780470868942
Release 2008-04-15
Pages 698
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This new book, written by two outstanding scientists in the field, describes the basic principles of toxic mechanisms and organ toxicity, providing detailed information on specific mechanisms or chemicals for exemplification. The goal is to provide sufficient information that the reader becomes familiar with the basic concepts in toxicology to enable him or her to understand the basic principles in toxicology and to evaluate the risks at given exposures. With this basic understanding the reader also will be able to critically evaluate the available information on a chemical and to identify data gaps. In addition to the introductory chapters the book will offer the following systematic information, presented in six special sections: Principles in Toxicology Organ Toxicology Methods in Toxicology Risk Assessment Risk Management Toxicity of Chemicals Fulfilling a demand for such a book, this will be a welcomed introductory text for students and non-experts alike to focus on and understand the principles of hazard identification and risk assessment of toxicants. Relevant to all those studying toxicology, biochemistry, biology, medicine and chemistry, as well as toxicologists in hospitals, universities and in industry.



History of Risk Assessment in Toxicology

History of Risk Assessment in Toxicology Author Sol Bobst
ISBN-10 9780128095430
Release 2017-09-20
Pages 50
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History of Risk Assessment in Toxicology guides the reader through the historical narrative of the evolution of risk assessment thinking in human and environmental practices. Risk assessment concepts are used in many different professional practice areas. In the health and environmental practices of risk assessment, the critical issue is often what chemical concentration in air, water, food, or a solid substance is acceptable, or considered not to result in any adverse effect. The book reviews examples from early scientific and health studies to showcase the foundations of risk assessment. The book also explores the development of risk assessment as practiced by major regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reveal how risk assessment has evolved in the 20th and 21st centuries. Modern technology has created opportunities in silicon in vitro, computational modeling, omics, and big data techniques to assess the toxicity of chemicals, while traditional approaches to risk assessment are being challenged with new and innovative approaches. Finally, current issues being debated and tested in risk assessment are outlined with possible future avenues suggested. Presents the first dedicated history on the evolution of risk assessment in toxicology Reviews the development of major US and EU regulatory bodies Provides a context to current debates surrounding the future of risk assessment Reviews examples from early scientific and health studies to showcase the foundations of risk assessment



Computational Toxicology

Computational Toxicology Author Bruce A. Fowler
ISBN-10 9780123965080
Release 2013-06-04
Pages 274
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Computational Toxicology: Methods and Applications for Risk Assessment is an essential reference on the translation of computational toxicology data into information that can be used for more informed risk assessment decision-making. This book is authored by leading international investigators who have real-world experience in relating computational toxicology methods to risk assessment. Key topics of interest include QSAR modeling, chemical mixtures, applications to metabolomic and metabonomic data sets, toxicogenomic analyses, applications to REACH informational strategies and much more. The examples provided in this book are based on cutting-edge technologies and set out to stimulate the further development of this promising field to offer rapid, better and more cost-effective answers to major public health concerns. Authored by leading international researchers engaged in cutting-edge applications of computational methods for translating complex toxicological data sets into useful risk assessment information Incorporates real-world examples of how computational toxicological methods have been applied to advance the science of risk assessment Provides the framework necessary for new technologies and fosters common vocabularies and principles upon which the effects of new chemical entities should be compared



Computational Toxicology

Computational Toxicology Author Sean Ekins
ISBN-10 9781119282587
Release 2018-01-15
Pages 432
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A key resource for toxicologists across a broad spectrum of fields, this book offers a comprehensive analysis of molecular modelling approaches and strategies applied to risk assessment for pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. • Provides a perspective of what is currently achievable with computational toxicology and a view to future developments • Helps readers overcome questions of data sources, curation, treatment, and how to model / interpret critical endpoints that support 21st century hazard assessment • Assembles cutting-edge concepts and leading authors into a unique and powerful single-source reference • Includes in-depth looks at QSAR models, physicochemical drug properties, structure-based drug targeting, chemical mixture assessments, and environmental modeling • Features coverage about consumer product safety assessment and chemical defense along with chapters on open source toxicology and big data



Environmental Risk Assessment

Environmental Risk Assessment Author Ted Simon
ISBN-10 9781466598294
Release 2014-02-05
Pages 406
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The purpose of risk assessment is to support science-based decisions about how to solve complex societal problems. The problems we face in the twenty-first century have many social, political, and technical complexities. Environmental risk assessment in particular is of increasing importance as a means of seeking to address the potential effects of chemicals in the environment in both the developed and developing world. Environmental Risk Assessment: A Toxicological Approach examines various aspects of problem formulation, exposure, toxicity, and risk characterization that apply to both human health and ecological risk assessment. The book is aimed at the next generation of risk assessors and students who need to know more about developing, conducting, and interpreting risk assessments. It delivers a comprehensive view of the field, complete with sufficient background to enable readers to probe for themselves the science underlying the key issues in environmental risk. Written in an engaging and lively style by a highly experienced risk assessment practitioner, the text: Introduces the science of risk assessment—past, present, and future Covers problem formation and the development of exposure factors Explains how human epidemiology and animal testing data are used to determine toxicity criteria Provides environmental sampling data for conducting practice risk assessments Examines the use of in vitro and ‘omics methods for toxicity testing Describes the political and social aspects of science-based decisions in the twenty-first century Includes fully worked examples, case studies, discussion questions, and links to legislative hearings Readers of this volume will not only learn how to execute site-specific human health and ecological risk assessments but also gain a greater understanding of how science is used in deciding environmental regulations.



Molecular Biological Markers for Toxicology and Risk Assessment

Molecular Biological Markers for Toxicology and Risk Assessment Author Bruce A. Fowler
ISBN-10 9780128019016
Release 2016-06-10
Pages 164
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Molecular Biological Markers for Toxicology and Risk Assessment provides an introduction to the exciting field of biomarkers and their use in toxicology and risk assessment. In recent years, new classes of molecular biomarkers capable of detecting early manifestations of ongoing chemical-induced cell injury and cell death have been developed as a result of advances in analytical chemistry, molecular biology, and computational modeling. The interplay between these emergent tools of science has resulted in new insights into initial mechanisms of chemical-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. Molecular Biological Markers for Toxicology and Risk Assessment guides the reader through a broad range of molecular biological markers, including the "omic" biomarkers, and provides an examination of the various elements in the evolution of these modern tools. It then explores possible ways in which these markers may be applied to advance the field of chemical risk assessment. Since molecular biomarkers and related technologies are inherently complex, the book concludes with a section on risk communication in order that readers may appreciate both the strengths and limitations of molecular biological marker approaches to risk assessment practice. Introduces the use of molecular biomarkers to detect toxic effects of chemicals as early as possible Provides an accessible overview of this emerging, interdisciplinary field, to best inform decision making in chemical and pharmaceutical safety Includes a section on risk communication of these complex concepts, essential for effective risk assessment Provides new insights into the initial mechanisms of chemical-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity



Toxicology in Risk Assessment

Toxicology in Risk Assessment Author Harry Salem
ISBN-10 1560328371
Release 2000-02-17
Pages 313
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Toxicology is an integral part of the risk assessment process. In this book, investigators from the scientific and regulatory communities describe recent technical developments in risk assessment embracing toxicology and its allied sciences, risk qualification and characterisation, risk management, and risk communication. Case studies pertaining to current issues involving chemical and environmental risks, including military and industrial scenarios, are presented. Chapters describe value and ethical choices underlying toxicological decisions, economic and legal implications of regulations, understanding risk, and recommendations of the commission on risk assessment and risk management.



Computational Toxicology

Computational Toxicology Author Sean Ekins
ISBN-10 0470145889
Release 2007-07-27
Pages 800
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A comprehensive analysis of state-of-the-art molecular modeling approaches and strategies applied to risk assessment for pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals This unique volume describes how the interaction of molecules with toxicologically relevant targets can be predicted using computer-based tools utilizing X-ray crystal structures or homology, receptor, pharmacophore, and quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models of human proteins. It covers the in vitro models used, newer technologies, and regulatory aspects. The book offers a complete systems perspective to risk assessment prediction, discussing experimental and computational approaches in detail, with: * An introduction to toxicology methods and an explanation of computational methods * In-depth reviews of QSAR methods applied to enzymes, transporters, nuclear receptors, and ion channels * Sections on applying computers to toxicology assessment in the pharmaceutical industry and in the environmental arena * Chapters written by leading international experts * Figures that illustrate computational models and references for further information This is a key resource for toxicologists and scientists in the pharmaceutical industry and environmental sciences as well as researchers involved in ADMET, drug discovery, and technology and software development.



Fundamentals Of Aquatic Toxicology

Fundamentals Of Aquatic Toxicology Author Gary M. Rand
ISBN-10 1560320907
Release 1995-10-05
Pages 1125
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This text is divided into three parts. The first part describes basic toxicological concepts and methodologies used in aquatic toxicity testing, including the philosophies underlying testing strategies now required to meet and support regulatory standards. The second part of the book discusses various factors that affect transport, transformation, ultimate distribution, and accumulation of chemicals in the aquatic environment, along with the use of modelling to predict fate.; The final section of the book reviews types of effects or endpoints evaluated in field studies and the use of structure-activity relationships in aquatic toxicology to predict biological activity and physio-chemical properties of a chemical. This section also contains an extensive background of environmental legislation in the USA and within the European Community, and an introduction to hazard/risk assessment with case studies.



Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment

Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment Author Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology
ISBN-10 9780309070867
Release 2000-11-21
Pages 354
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Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment reviews advances made during the last 10-15 years in fields such as developmental biology, molecular biology, and genetics. It describes a novel approach for how these advances might be used in combination with existing methodologies to further the understanding of mechanisms of developmental toxicity, to improve the assessment of chemicals for their ability to cause developmental toxicity, and to improve risk assessment for developmental defects. For example, based on the recent advances, even the smallest, simplest laboratory animals such as the fruit fly, roundworm, and zebrafish might be able to serve as developmental toxicological models for human biological systems. Use of such organisms might allow for rapid and inexpensive testing of large numbers of chemicals for their potential to cause developmental toxicity; presently, there are little or no developmental toxicity data available for the majority of natural and manufactured chemicals in use. This new approach to developmental toxicology and risk assessment will require simultaneous research on several fronts by experts from multiple scientific disciplines, including developmental toxicologists, developmental biologists, geneticists, epidemiologists, and biostatisticians.



Cancer Risk Assessment

Cancer Risk Assessment Author Ching-Hung Hsu
ISBN-10 1118035127
Release 2010-12-08
Pages 824
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With a weight-of-the-evidence approach, cancer risk assessment indentifies hazards, determines dose-response relationships, and assesses exposure to characterize the true risk. This book focuses on the quantitative methods for conducting chemical cancer risk assessments for solvents, metals, mixtures, and nanoparticles. It links these to the basic toxicology and biology of cancer, along with the impacts on regulatory guidelines and standards. By providing insightful perspective, Cancer Risk Assessment helps researchers develop a discriminate eye when it comes to interpreting data accurately and separating relevant information from erroneous.



Lu s Basic Toxicology

Lu s Basic Toxicology Author Byung-Mu Lee
ISBN-10 9781315391687
Release 2017-09-06
Pages 647
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Continuing a long tradition, Lu’s Basic Toxicology, Seventh Edition, combines relatively comprehensive coverage of toxic substances in food, air, and water with brevity, thereby continuing to serve as an updated introductory text for toxicology students and for those involved in allied sciences that require a background in toxicology. The new edition, which now becomes an edited work with contributions from experts around the globe, features four new chapters and a number of existing chapters that have been updated and expanded, notably those on mechanisms of toxic effects, conventional toxicity studies, the cardiovascular system, and risk assessment and regulatory toxicology.



Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Risk Assessment

Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Risk Assessment Author Wai Nang Choy
ISBN-10 0824702948
Release 2001-08-31
Pages 406
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Presents state-of-the-art regulatory cancer risk assessment models including a biologically based model for two-hit carcinogenesis and cell proliferation! This book comprehensively reviews the various roles of genetic toxicology in human cancer risk assessment conducted by United States and worldwide regulatory agencies-discussing hazard identification, dose-response relationships, exposure assessment, and current practices of risk characterization. Examines predictive values of mutagenicity tests, mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and conventional genotoxicity tests required by the International Conference on Harmonization and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Environmental Protection Agency guidelines! Comprised of contributions from prominent experts and risk assessors and including nearly 1200 references to facilitate further study, Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Risk Assessment reviews contemporary human cancer genetics as related to the mutagenic nature of carcinogenesis calculates acceptable exposure levels based on a carcinogenic threshold dose for nongenotoxic carcinogens reveals the rationale and methodology of quantitative estimation of human cancer risks using mathematical models discusses the threshold concept of carcinogenesis demonstrates how bacterial mutagenicity assays are the most reliable for predicting rodent carcinogens considers structural activity relationship (SAR) analysis of chemical carcinogenicity describes the emergence of the mouse lymphoma microwell and in vitro micronucleus assays illustrates the use of genetic biomarkers for dosimetry analysis and more! Linking human cancer genetics, mutagenicity assays, mechanisms of carcinogenesis, carcinogenic thresholds, molecular epidemiology, mathematical modeling, and quantitative cancer risk analysis, Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Risk Assessment is a must-have reference for toxicologists; oncologists; geneticists; biostatisticians; reproductive, developmental, cell, and molecular biologists; endocrinologists; biochemists; and upper-level undergraduate, graduate, and medical school students in these disciplines.



Risk Assessment of Chemicals An Introduction

Risk Assessment of Chemicals  An Introduction Author C.J. van Leeuwen
ISBN-10 9789401585200
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 374
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In recent years many developments have taken place in promote co-operation between governments and other the field of risk assessment of chemicals. Many reports parties involved in chemical safety and to provide policy have been published by national authorities, industries guidance with emphasis on regional and subregional co and scientific researchers as well as by international bod operation. The Inter-Organization Programme for the ies such as the European Union, the Organization of Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC) was estab Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and lished in 1995 and provides a mechanism for the six par the joint International Programme on Chemical Safety ticipating organizations (UNEP, ILO, FAO, UNIDO,WHO (IPCS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the and OECD) to better co-ordinate policies and activities in International Labour Organization (lLO), and the United the field of chemical risk management. Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The present book is an introduction to risk assessment of The development and international harmonization of risk chemicals. It contains basic background information on assessment methods is an important challenge. In sources, emissions, distribution and fate processes for Agenda 21 of the United Nations Conference on exposure estimation. It includes dose-effects estimation Environment and Development (UNCED), chapter 19 is for both human health related toxicology and ecotoxicol entirely devoted to the management of chemicals. For ogy as well as information on estimation methodologies. one of its recommendations, i. e.