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Trading in Genes

Trading in Genes Author Ricardo Melendez-Ortiz
ISBN-10 9781136551055
Release 2013-06-17
Pages 320
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Sustaining the new bioeconomy requires a global biotechnology governance regime to bring a large number of developing countries into the global trading system. Failure to do so will create a "genetic divide" among countries and is likely to intensify public opposition to biotechnology. This interdisciplinary collection of perspectives from the developing world - on debates over the relationships between biotechnology, biosafety, sustainable development and trade - seeks to bridge the gap between the different areas of regulatory activities and academic research and between the various stakeholders in the debate. Leading experts, writing for the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, examine: the risks and opportunities of biotechnology; biosafety; intellectual property rights and related issues of access to genetic resources; benefit-sharing and traditional knowledge; biotechnological development; capacity building; the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety; relevant WTO provisions; and developing countries' options in the WTO context.



The Implementation Game

The Implementation Game Author Carolyn Deere
ISBN-10 9780191564062
Release 2008-10-30
Pages 432
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With the launch of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995, its Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) emerged as a symbol of coercion in international economic relations. In the decade that followed, intellectual property became one of the most contentious topics of global policy debate. This book is the first full-length study of the politics surrounding what developing countries did to implement TRIPS and why. Based on a review of the evidence from 1995 to 2007, this book emphasises that developing countries exhibited considerable variation in their approach to TRIPS implementation. In particular, developing countries took varying degrees of advantage of the legal safeguards and options-commonly known as TRIPS 'flexibilities'-that the Agreement provides. To explain this variation, this book argues that TRIPS implementation must be understood as a complex political game played out among developing country governments and a range of stakeholders-developed countries, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), intergovernmental organisations (IGOs), and industry groups. The contested nature of the TRIPS bargain spurred competing efforts to revise the terms of TRIPS and to influence global IP regulation more broadly. The intensity of the implementation game was amplified by an awareness among the various stakeholders that the IP reforms developing countries pursued would influence these ongoing international negotiations. The book attributes the variation in TRIPS implementation to the interplay between these global IP debates, international power pressures, and political dynamics within developing countries. The book includes historical analysis, compilations of evidence, and analysis supported by examples from across the developing world. The Implementation Game will be of interest both to scholars of international relations, law, and international political economy as well as to policymakers, commentators, and activists engaged in debates on the global governance of intellectual property.



Public Policy in International Economic Law

Public Policy in International Economic Law Author Diane Desierto
ISBN-10 9780191026485
Release 2015-02-19
Pages 432
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States reject inequality when they choose to ratify the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), but to date the ICESCR has not yet figured prominently in the policy calculus behind States' international economic decisions. This book responds to the modern challenge of operationalizing the ICESCR, particularly in the context of States' decisions within international trade, finance, and investment. Differentiating between public policy mechanisms and institutional functional mandates in the international trade, finance, and investment systems, this book shows legal and policy gateways for States to feasibly translate their fundamental duties to respect, protect, and fulfil economic, social and cultural rights into their trade, finance, and investment commitments, agreements, and contracts. It approaches the problem of harmonizing social protection objectives under the ICESCR with a State's international economic treaty obligations, from the designing and interpreting international treaty texts, up to the institutional monitoring and empirical analysis of ICESCR compliance. In examining public policy options, the book takes into account around five decades of States' implementation of social protection commitments under the ICESCR; its normative evolution through the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Committee's expanded fact-finding and adjudicative competences under the Optional Protocol to the ICESCR; as well as the critical, dialectical, and deliberative roles of diverse functional interpretive communities within international trade, finance, and investment law. Ultimately, the book shoes how States' ICESCR commitments operate as the normative foundation of their trade, finance, and investment decisions.



Trading in Knowledge

Trading in Knowledge Author Christophe Bellmann
ISBN-10 9781136550980
Release 2013-06-17
Pages 358
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An unprecedented surge in the scope and level of intellectual property rights (IPR) protection has been engulfing the world. This globalizing trend has shifted the balance of interests between private innovators and society at large and tensions have flared around key public policy concerns. As developing nations' policy options to use IPRs in support of their broader development strategy are being rapidly narrowed down, many experts are questioning the one-size-fits-all approach to IPR protection and are backing a rebalancing of the global regime. Developing countries face huge challenges when designing and implementing IPR-policy on all levels. This book offers perspectives from a diverse range of developing country participants including civil society participants, farmers, grassroots organizations, researchers and government officials. Contributions from well-known developed country authorities round out the selections.



Intellectual Property and Sustainable Development

Intellectual Property and Sustainable Development Author Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz
ISBN-10 9781849803458
Release 2009
Pages 459
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ÔThis is a thought-provoking book with relevance to a broad readership, especially IP practitioners with a strong international focus.Õ Ð Australian Intellectual Property Law Bulletin Intellectual property (IP) has gained an unprecedented importance in the new world of globalization and the knowledge economy. However, experience, as well as cyclical attitudes toward IP, show that there is no universal model of IP protection. This comprehensive book considers new and emerging IP issues from a development perspective, examining recent trends and developments in this area. Presenting an overview of the IP landscape in general, the contributing authors subsequently narrow their focus, providing wide-ranging case studies from countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America on topical issues in the current IP discourse. These include the impact of IP on the pharmaceutical sector, the protection of life forms and traditional knowledge, geographical indications, access to knowledge and public research institutes, and the role of competition policy. The challenges developing countries face in the TRIPS-Plus world are also explored in detail. The diverse range of contributions to this thought-provoking book offer a wide variety of alternative perspectives on and solutions for the controversial issues surrounding the role of IP within sustainable development. As such, it will prove a stimulating read for government policy-makers, trade negotiators, academics, lawyers and IP practitioners in general, UN and other intergovernmental agencies, development campaigners and aid agencies, environmentalist groups and university students.



Environment Planning

Environment   Planning Author
ISBN-10 NWU:35556039808274
Release 2010-01
Pages
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Environment Planning has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Environment Planning also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Environment Planning book for free.



Environmental Governance in Kenya

Environmental Governance in Kenya Author C. Odidi Okidi
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105132830014
Release 2008
Pages 554
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Kenya is one of about 42 African countries which have enacted framework environmental laws. 14 January 2000 was the Date of Commencement of the Environment Management and Co-ordination Act (EMCA) after its adoption in December 1999 and receipt of Presidential Assent on 6 January 2000. From that date, all sectoral laws were expected to be reviewed or amended to ensure consistency with the requirements of EMCA. Under Section 148 of EMCA: "Any written law, in force immediately before the coming into force of this Act, relating to the management of the environment shall have effect subject to modification as may be necessary to give effect to this Act, and where the provisions of any such law conflict with any provisions of this Act, the provisions of this Act shall prevail". This book is an appraisal of the extent to which this provision has been implemented. It critically analyses environmental law in Kenya with a view to identifying the convergences and divergences between select sectoral laws and EMCA. The ultimate objective is to support internal harmonization of the corpus of environmental law in Kenya.



Yearbook of European Environmental Law

Yearbook of European Environmental Law Author Han Somsen
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105064200665
Release 2007
Pages
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Yearbook of European Environmental Law has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Yearbook of European Environmental Law also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Yearbook of European Environmental Law book for free.



Freedom to innovate

Freedom to innovate Author Calestous Juma
ISBN-10 CORNELL:31924104470129
Release 2007
Pages 144
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Freedom to innovate has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Freedom to innovate also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Freedom to innovate book for free.



Survival for a Small Planet

Survival for a Small Planet Author Tom Bigg
ISBN-10 9781136556234
Release 2013-06-17
Pages 384
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In Joseph Conrad s tales, representations of women and of "feminine" generic forms like the romance are often present in fugitive ways. Conrad s use of allegorical feminine imagery, fleet or deferred introductions of female characters, and hybrid generic structures that combine features of "masculine" tales of adventure and intrigue and "feminine" dramas of love or domesticity are among the subjects of this literary study. Many of Conrad s critics have argued that Conrad s fictions are aesthetically flawed by the inclusion of women and love plots; thus Thomas Moser has questioned why Conrad did not "cut them out altogether." Yet a thematics of gender suffuses Conrad s narrative strategies. Even in tales that contain no significant female characters or obvious love plots, Conrad introduces elusive feminine presences, in relationships between men, as well as in men s relationships to their ship, the sea, a shore breeze, or even in the gendered embrace of death. This book investigates an identifiably feminine "point of view" which is present in fugitive ways throughout Conrad s canon. Conrad s narrative strategies are articulated through a language of sexual difference that provides the vocabulary and grammar for tales examining European class, racial, and gender paradigms to provide acute and, at times, equivocal investigations of femininity and difference."



Intellectual Property

Intellectual Property Author Thomas Cottier
ISBN-10 9780472026432
Release 2010-04-23
Pages 552
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The incorporation of intellectual property protection into the WTO international trading system has been a milestone in international economic law and has added a new dimension to trade regulation — new rights and obligations and new challenges alike. The contributors, leading scholars and practitioners in the field, provide insights into the legal relationship of the TRIPs Agreement to the GATT 94 and the GATS. The book widens the debate with a thorough discussion on pending and unresolved relations of TRIPs, the WTO, UPOV, the Convention on Biodiversity and Farmers' Rights contained in the FAO International Undertaking, and efforts of the World Bank GCIAR system, including IPGRI. What will be the impact of TRIPs on ownership of plant genetic resources? Largely a victory for OECD countries, the present state of intellectual property rights has important implications for developing countries. The incorporation of intellectual property rights into the WTO system will eventually change the relationship of trade, competition, and intellectual property. It will equally have to assist in providing equitable sharing of benefits in the use of plant genetic resources. All of these issues are essential for the revision of exclusions from patenting in TRIPs. This volume offers insights into how this difficult task could and should be approached in a balanced manner and will be essential reading for economists and trade and intellectual property lawyers interested in the subject. Moreover, the volume will be relevant to agricultural economists as it addresses complex problems in the interstices of trade, intellectual property, plant genetic resources, and sustainable development. Thomas Cottier is Professor of European and International Economic Law, University of Bern, and Managing Director, World Trade Institute, University of Bern. Petros C. Mavroidis is Professor of Law, University of Neuchâtel. He formerly worked in the Legal Affairs Division of the World Trade Organization. Marion Panizzon is Research Fellow, University of Bern. Simon Lacey is Research Fellow, University of Bern.



Genetically Modified Organisms in Agriculture

Genetically Modified Organisms in Agriculture Author Gerald C. Nelson
ISBN-10 0080488862
Release 2001-03-22
Pages 344
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Genetically modified crops have become a topic of great interest among scientists, regulators, consumers, farmers, and politicians. Despite their potential benefits, public hostility toward these crops is causing dramatic changes to import/export policies, food safety regulations, and agricultural practices around the world. Genetically Modified Organisms in Agriculture provides a comprehensive overview of the subject and a balanced look at the costs and benefits of GMO products. Part I reviews the scientific, economic, and political issues relating to the use of agricultural GMOs. Chapters cover specific applications, regulatory concerns, import/export patterns, international trade issues, and a discussion of future trends. Part II offers a unique look at all sides of the GMO controversies, with short chapters contributed by leading individuals with widely different perspectives. Part III presents a more in-depth look at selected issues plus helpful reference materials. This book makes the latest information on GMOs accessible to all interested parties, including students, laypeople, scientists, activists, and professionals working in related fields. * Additional detailed footnotes and references for the academic * International contributions from the US, Europe and India * Covers the perspectives of different groups involved in the controversies: governments, environmental agencies, consumers, industrial agencies and the developing world



Gene Traders

Gene Traders Author Brian Tokar
ISBN-10 0974693510
Release 2004
Pages 124
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Brian Tokar brings us a gold mine of in-depth investigations showing exactly how corporations and global institutions are systematically manipulating governments, farmers and public opinion to gain control over our food supply. Gene Traders provides the detail and insight we need to take part in the global democracy movement to reverse this catastrophe. [Frances Moore Lappe] In this broad and comprehensive survey, seven authors show how the interplay of trade policy, 'development' politics and biotechnology increases dependency and hunger, while compromising the survival of traditional farmers and their communities.



Medicinal plants in India

Medicinal plants in India Author Dr. Pradeep Kumar
ISBN-10 8121105374
Release 2006
Pages 258
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Study conducted in Uttaranchal State, India.



Books in Print 2004 2005

Books in Print  2004 2005 Author
ISBN-10 0835246477
Release 2004
Pages
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Books in Print 2004 2005 has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Books in Print 2004 2005 also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Books in Print 2004 2005 book for free.



Towards a Sustainable Bioeconomy Principles Challenges and Perspectives

Towards a Sustainable Bioeconomy  Principles  Challenges and Perspectives Author Walter Leal Filho
ISBN-10 9783319730288
Release 2018-01-19
Pages 575
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This book gathers contributions from scientists and industry representatives on achieving a sustainable bioeconomy. It also covers the social sciences, economics, business, education and the environmental sciences. There is an urgent need to optimise and maximise the use of biological resources, so that primary production and processing systems can generate more food, fibre and other bio-based products with less environmental impacts and lower greenhouse gas emissions. In other words, we need a “sustainable bioeconomy” – a term that encompasses the sustainable production of renewable resources from land, fisheries and aquaculture environments and their conversion into food, feed, fibre bio-based products and bio-energy, as well as related public goods. Despite the relevance of achieving a sustainable bioeconomy, there are very few publications in this field. Addressing that gap, this book illustrates how biological resources and ecosystems could be used in a more sustainable, efficient and integrated manner – in other words, how the principles of sustainable bioeconomy can be implemented in practice. Given its interdisciplinary nature, the field of sustainable bioeconomy offers a unique opportunity to address complex and interconnected challenges, while also promoting economic growth. It helps countries and societies to make a transition and to use resources more efficiently, and shows how to rely less on biological resources to satisfy industry demands and consumer needs. The papers are innovative, cross-cutting and include many practice-based lessons learned, some of which are reproducible elsewhere. In closing, the book, prepared by the Inter-University Sustainable Development Research Programme (IUSDRP) and the World Sustainable Development Research and Transfer Centre (WSD-RTC), reiterates the need to promote a sustainable bioeconomy today.



Forthcoming Books

Forthcoming Books Author Rose Arny
ISBN-10 UOM:39015054037059
Release 2003
Pages
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Forthcoming Books has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Forthcoming Books also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Forthcoming Books book for free.