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Transatlantic Science and Technology

Transatlantic Science and Technology Author Sabine E. Herlitschka
ISBN-10 9781461443858
Release 2012-08-09
Pages 76
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​​​​​​Major societal challenges of a global nature include climate change, efficient energy supply, environmental sustainability, and health care. Science & Technology Policy (S&T) policy is an essential contributor to dealing with these challenges; moreover, international cooperation and collaboration in S&T is vital to tackling these issues, since no single nation or even region is able to respond adequately by itself. Within this context, this book addresses recent developments in transatlantic S&T cooperation between the European Union and the United States. The EU-U.S. relationship dates back to the 1950s, with regular EU-U.S. Summits to assess and develop transatlantic cooperation. In the area of S&T, the EU and U.S. concluded an S&T Cooperation Agreement in 1998, renewed it in 2004, and extended it for another five years in July 2009. The research underlying this study is based on interviews with key stakeholders in the field, with an emphasis on: • potential new opportunities and new mechanisms for increased transatlantic EU – U.S. S&T cooperation under current conditions • examples of coordinated “science diplomacy” efforts • options for the development of effective joint efforts. While the project is focused on European-U.S. relationships, it also addresses issues of international S&T cooperation involving other regions, including Africa and Asia. The author highlights the urgency of S&T cooperation to address global issues, and the evolving roles of government, universities and research centers, and industry, in promoting successful strategies and programs.



Collective Rights and Digital Content

Collective Rights and Digital Content Author Cláudio Lucena
ISBN-10 9783319159102
Release 2015-03-09
Pages 50
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This book starts with an exercise, proposing a theoretical reflection on the technological path that, over time, has transformed the ways we produce, consume and manage intellectual content subject to copyright protection. This lays the groundwork for a further analysis of the main legal aspects of the new European Directive, its improvements, its tendencies and its points of controversy, with special and more concrete attention to how it proposes to address the issues of competition, transparency and multi-territorial licensing. Digital technologies, networks and communication have boosted the production and distribution of intellectual content. These activities are based on a renewable and infinite resource – creativity – which turns this content into strategic artistic, cultural, social, economic and informational assets. Managing the rights and obligations that emerge in this system has never been an easy task; managing them collectively, which is more often than not the case, adds even more complexity. The European Directive on collective management of copyright and related rights and multi-territorial licensing of rights in musical works for online use in the internal market is a policy initiative that seeks to establish an adequate legal framework for the collective management of authors’ rights in a digital environment, recognizing this goal as crucial to achieving a fully integrated Single Market. Part of the Digital Agenda for Europe, it is an effort to promote simplification and to enhance the efficiency of collective rights management by tackling three of the main issues that are currently undermining the business model of collecting societies: competition, transparency and multi-territorial licensing. The book is intended to support students, academics and practitioners by enhancing their general and legal grasp of these phenomena, while also encouraging their collaboration with policymakers and other interested parties in the ongoing task of transposing the Directive into concrete national legislation.



The Impact of Climate Change on Our Life

The Impact of Climate Change on Our Life Author Abdelnaser Omran
ISBN-10 9789811077487
Release 2018-02-23
Pages 250
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This book introduces the highly topical issue from many different angles, sensitizing readers to the various challenges to human life posed by climate change, identifying possible intentional and inadvertent anthropogenic factors and consequences, and seeking socially and environmentally viable solutions. The book begins by examining the impact of the climate change discussion on science, politics, economy and culture – from its historical origin in the first Club of Rome Report and its inclusion in the UN's SDGs to the Paris Agreement and beyond. Comprising 12 chapters, it analyses the factors which caused the catastrophic 2014 Kelantan flood in Malaysia, focusing on the Kuala Krai district and discusses mud architecture in Wadi Hadramout, Yemen and mitigating the expected effects of climate change on this unique architecture and cultural heritage. It also examines the economic costs of climate change on health and the increased burden on individual expenditures and national health systems. The role of climate change in the water-energy nexus and efforts to increase efficiency in energy and water end-use to increase Queensland’s agricultural sector’s resilience in Australia is addressed, as is water security and climate change issues in developing countries and the potential of partnership procurement strategies for managing sustainable urban water supply in Nigerian cities. It also includes a chapter offering a new approach to waste management, exploring to what extent waste can complicate our daily actions and influence environmental decay, and recommending that renewable materials be sorted and separated from other types of materials to avoid cross-contamination, to increase the value of the materials, and to ease the process of manufacturing. Subsequent chapters identify factors sustaining the municipal solid waste management and practices in Ajdabiya city in Libya, and look at accounting disclosure remedies by exploring areas in which sustainability reporting could expand beyond corporate environmental reporting to additional disclosures, curbing recklessness in pursuing merely economic goals. The book shows – from the perspective of agriculture – how human activities can increase the negative impacts of climate change on lifestyle in Malaysia, suggesting alternative lifestyles and encouraging international cooperative efforts. The last chapters evaluate the impacts of various environmental factors on the local tourism sector in Pakistan, and discuss strategies to tackle climate change, focusing on the opportunities and risks of climate engineering. Since these risks encompass inadvertent negative effects and targeted abuse for covert weather warfare and terrorism that violate the UN’s ENMOD convention, the author recommends viable alternatives to deal with climate change.



How to Do Science with Models

How to Do Science with Models Author Axel Gelfert
ISBN-10 9783319279541
Release 2015-12-21
Pages 135
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Taking scientific practice as its starting point, this book charts the complex territory of models used in science. It examines what scientific models are and what their function is. Reliance on models is pervasive in science, and scientists often need to construct models in order to explain or predict anything of interest at all. The diversity of kinds of models one finds in science – ranging from toy models and scale models to theoretical and mathematical models – has attracted attention not only from scientists, but also from philosophers, sociologists, and historians of science. This has given rise to a wide variety of case studies that look at the different uses to which models have been put in specific scientific contexts. By exploring current debates on the use and building of models via cutting-edge examples drawn from physics and biology, the book provides broad insight into the methodology of modelling in the natural sciences. It pairs specific arguments with introductory material relating to the ontology and the function of models, and provides some historical context to the debates as well as a sketch of general positions in the philosophy of scientific models in the process.



Ecological Processes at Marine Fronts

Ecological Processes at Marine Fronts Author Eduardo Marcelo Acha
ISBN-10 9783319154794
Release 2015-02-20
Pages 68
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This book reviews and summarizes the results and hypotheses raised by studies directly or indirectly dealing with the ecology of fronts and aims to identify the themes that connect them to produce a synthesis of this knowledge. Though not immediately perceived the ocean is highly structured and fronts are one of the most important components of its structural complexity. Marine fronts have been known since the early 20th Century, however, the more recent availability of high resolution satellite imagery, field measurements and numerical simulations have greatly advanced our understanding of their ecological impact. This work touches on topics such as front types, its biology and its comparisons with other bounderies at sea, as well as comparisons of fronts with terrestrial boundaries and the ‘ecotone’ concept. Furthermore, it also looks at the management and conservation of marine life.



From Smart City to Smart Region

From Smart City to Smart Region Author Corinna Morandi
ISBN-10 9783319173382
Release 2015-08-14
Pages 103
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This book offers a fascinating exploration of the relationship between information and communication technologies (ICTs) and spatial planning, expanding the concept of “urban smartness” from the usual scale of buildings or urban projects to the regional dimension. In particular, it presents the outcomes of research undertaken at Politecnico di Milano, in collaboration with Telecom Italia, that had three principal goals: to investigate the use of ICTs for the representation, promotion, management, and dissemination of an integrated system of services; to explore the spatial impacts of digital services at different scales (regional, urban, local); and to understand how a system of mobile services can encourage new spatial uses and new collective behavior in the quest for better spatial quality of places. Useful critical analysis of international case studies is also included with the aim of verifying the opportunities afforded by new digital services not only to improve the urban efficiency but also to foster the evolution of urban communities through enhancement of the public realm. The book will be a source of valuable insights for both scholars and local administrators and operators involved in smart city projects.



Development Aid Populism and the End of the Neoliberal Agenda

Development Aid   Populism and the End of the Neoliberal Agenda Author Viktor Jakupec
ISBN-10 9783319727486
Release 2017-12-04
Pages 85
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This volume examines the impact of the Trump presidency on development aid. It starts out by describing the rise of national populism, the political landscape and the reasons for rejection of the political establishment, both under Trump and internationally. Next, it gives a historical-political overview of development aid in the post WW-II era and discusses the dominant Washington Consensus doctrine and its failure. It then provides a critique of the Official Development Assistance (ODA) discourse and reviews the political economy of ODA, the discourse, and the conditionalities that are barriers to socio-economic development. The final chapters explore the question of Trumponomics as an alternative to the global neoliberal ODA, and the potential impact of Trumponomics’ on ODA. The book concludes with thoughts on the potential future directions for ODA within the ‘ideals’ of Trumponomics and national populism.



Strategy for American Innovation

Strategy for American Innovation Author Barack Obama
ISBN-10 9781437981247
Release 2011-04-01
Pages 22
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Pres. Obama's Innovation Strategy builds on over $100 billion of Recovery Act funds that support innovation, support for educ., infrastructure and others and novel regulatory and exec. order initiatives. It seeks to harness the ingenuity of the Amer. people and a dynamic private sector to ensure that the next expansion is more solid, broad-based, and beneficial than previous ones. The strategy focuses on critical areas where balanced gov't. policies can lay the foundation for innovation that leads to quality jobs and shared prosperity: (1) Invest in the Building Blocks of Amer. Innovation; (2) Promote Competitive Markets that Spur Productive Entrepreneurship; (3) Catalyze Breakthroughs for National Priorities. Illus. This is a print on demand publication.



Climate Fire and Human Evolution

Climate  Fire and Human Evolution Author Andrew Y. Glikson
ISBN-10 9783319225128
Release 2015-11-04
Pages 227
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The book outlines principal milestones in the evolution of the atmosphere, oceans and biosphere during the last 4 million years in relation with the evolution from primates to the genus Homo – which uniquely mastered the ignition and transfer of fire. The advent of land plants since about 420 million years ago ensued in flammable carbon-rich biosphere interfaced with an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Born on a flammable Earth surface, under increasingly unstable climates descending from the warmer Pliocene into the deepest ice ages of the Pleistocene, human survival depended on both—biological adaptations and cultural evolution, mastering fire as a necessity. This allowed the genus to increase entropy in nature by orders of magnitude. Gathered around camp fires during long nights for hundreds of thousandth of years, captivated by the flickering life-like dance of the flames, humans developed imagination, insights, cravings, fears, premonitions of death and thereby aspiration for immortality, omniscience, omnipotence and the concept of god. Inherent in pantheism was the reverence of the Earth, its rocks and its living creatures, contrasted by the subsequent rise of monotheistic sky-god creeds which regard Earth as but a corridor to heaven. Once the climate stabilized in the early Holocene, since about ~7000 years-ago production of excess food by Neolithic civilization along the Great River Valleys has allowed human imagination and dreams to express themselves through the construction of monuments to immortality. Further to burning large part of the forests, the discovery of combustion and exhumation of carbon from the Earth’s hundreds of millions of years-old fossil biospheres set the stage for an anthropogenic oxidation event, affecting an abrupt shift in state of the atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere system. The consequent ongoing extinction equals the past five great mass extinctions of species—constituting a geological event horizon in the history of planet Earth.



International Business and Global Climate Change

International Business and Global Climate Change Author Jonatan Pinkse
ISBN-10 9781134119592
Release 2009-01-13
Pages 216
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Climate change has become an important topic on the business agenda with strong pressure being placed on companies to respond and contribute to finding solutions to this urgent problem. This text provides a comprehensive analysis of international business responses to global climate change and climate change policy. Embedded in relevant management literature, this book gives a concise treatment of developments in policy and business activity on global, regional and national levels, using examples and systematic data from a large number of international companies. The first part outlines the international climate policy landscape and voluntary initiatives taken by companies, both alone and together with others. The second part examines companies’ strategies, covering innovation for climate change, as well as compensation via emissions trading and carbon offsetting. Written by well-known experts in the field, International Business and Global Climate Change illustrates how an environmental topic becomes strategically important in a mainstream sense, affecting corporate decision-making, business processes, products, reputation, advertising, communication, accounting and finance. This is a must-read for academics as well as practitioners concerned with this issue.



Mode 3 Knowledge Production in Quadruple Helix Innovation Systems

Mode 3 Knowledge Production in Quadruple Helix Innovation Systems Author Elias G. Carayannis
ISBN-10 1461420628
Release 2011-12-02
Pages 63
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Developed and developing economies alike face increased resource scarcity and competitive rivalry. In this context, science and technology appear as an essential source of competitive and sustainable advantage at national and regional levels. However, the key determinant of their efficacy is the quality and quantity of entrepreneurship-enabled innovation that unlocks and captures the benefits of the science enterprise in the form of private, public or hybrid goods. Linking basic and applied research with the market, via technology transfer and commercialization mechanisms, including government-university-industry partnerships and capital investments, constitutes the essential trigger mechanism and driving force of sustainable competitive advantage and prosperity. In this volume, the authors define the terms and principles of knowledge creation, diffusion, and use, and establish a theoretical framework for their study. In particular, they focus on the “Quadruple Helix” model, through which government, academia, industry, and civil society are seen as key actors promoting a democratic approach to innovation through which strategy development and decision making are exposed to feedback from key stakeholders, resulting in socially accountable policies and practices.



Regulatory Theory

Regulatory Theory Author Peter Drahos
ISBN-10 9781760461027
Release 2017-02-23
Pages 783
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This volume introduces readers to regulatory theory. Aimed at practitioners, postgraduate students and those interested in regulation as a cross-cutting theme in the social sciences, Regulatory Theory includes chapters on the social-psychological foundations of regulation as well as theories of regulation such as responsive regulation, smart regulation and nodal governance. It explores the key themes of compliance, legal pluralism, meta-regulation, the rule of law, risk, accountability, globalisation and regulatory capitalism. The environment, crime, health, human rights, investment, migration and tax are among the fields of regulation considered in this ground-breaking book. Each chapter introduces the reader to key concepts and ideas and contains suggestions for further reading. The contributors, who either are or have been connected to the Regulatory Institutions Network (RegNet) at The Australian National University, include John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Peter Grabosky, Neil Gunningham, Fiona Haines, Terry Halliday, David Levi-Faur, Christine Parker, Colin Scott and Clifford Shearing.



Experimental and Clinical Metastasis

Experimental and Clinical Metastasis Author Julia V. Burnier
ISBN-10 9781461436850
Release 2013-01-04
Pages 472
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Metastatic disease is the most lethal aspect of human malignancies, making the understanding and continued research of the process of metastasis a crucial step in treating cancer. The proposed book, entitled “Experimental and Clinical Metastasis: A Comprehensive Review” aims to provide a clear and extensive review of the clinical and experimental implications of metastatic disease. This work focuses on recent contributions to the field of metastasis, and will highlight crucial findings in the molecular understanding of disseminated disease as well as standard and personalized medicine currently being investigated in the clinic. Topics will include, among many, gene properties of metastatic cells, molecular mechanisms of tumour growth and spread, animal models of metastasis, and clinical implications, markers and treatment for metastatic disease. With the participation of worldwide experts in the field of oncology, from major academic and government centres, this book will provide a leading manual for the study of the metastatic process, from benchside science to bedside care. In this light, the proposed book will facilitate classroom learning for both medical and graduate students, as well as serve as a tool for physicians and researchers interested in the metastatic process. In addition, this book will include the latest advances in basic science as well as leading technologies and theories of targeting metastatic cells. Most importantly, not only will basic and clinical aspects be discussed, but furthermore, the translational aspect of research in metastatic diseases will be emphasized.



Wireless Networked Music Performance

Wireless Networked Music Performance Author Leonardo Gabrielli
ISBN-10 9789811003356
Release 2015-12-29
Pages 109
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This book presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in Networked Music Performance (NMP) and a historical survey of computer music networking. It introduces current technical trends in NMP and technical issues yet to be addressed. It also lists wireless communication protocols and compares these to the requirements of NMP. Practical use cases and advancements are also discussed.



The Intangible Elements of Culture in Ethnoarchaeological Research

The Intangible Elements of Culture in Ethnoarchaeological Research Author Stefano Biagetti
ISBN-10 9783319231532
Release 2016-06-02
Pages 323
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This volume focuses on the intangible elements of human cultures, whose relevance in the study of archaeology has often been claimed but rarely practiced. In this book, the authors successfully show how the adoption of ethnoarchaeological perspectives on non-material aspects of cultures can support the development of methodologies aimed at refining the archaeological interpretation of ancient items, technologies, rituals, settlements and even landscape. The volume includes a series of new approaches that can foster the dialogue between archaeology and anthropology in the domain of the intangible knowledge of rural and urban communities. The role of ethnoarchaeology in the study of the intangible heritage is so far largely underexplored, and there is a considerable lack of ethnoarchaeological studies explicitly focused on the less tangible evidence of present and past societies. Fresh case studies will revitalize the theoretical debate around ethnoarchaeology and its applicability in the archaeological and heritage research in the new millennium. Over the past decade, ‘intangible’ has become a key word in anthropological research and in heritage management. Archaeological theories and methods regarding the explorations of the meaning and the significance of artifacts, resources, and settlement patterns are increasingly focusing on non-material evidence. Due to its peculiar characteristics, ethnoarchaeology can effectively foster the development of the study of the intangible cultural heritage of living societies, and highlight its relevance to the study of those of the past.



Fundamentals of Space Business and Economics

Fundamentals of Space Business and Economics Author Ozgur Gurtuna
ISBN-10 9781461466963
Release 2013-04-16
Pages 85
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This book provides an overview of key topics related to space business and management. Case studies and an integrative section are included to illustrate the fundamental concepts and to build intuition. Key topics in the field, such as risk management and cost management, are covered in detail.



The Criminalisation of Migration in Europe

The Criminalisation of Migration in Europe Author Valsamis Mitsilegas
ISBN-10 9783319126586
Release 2014-10-31
Pages 110
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This is the first monograph providing a comprehensive legal analysis of the criminalisation of migration in Europe. The book puts forward a definition of the criminalisation of migration as the three-fold process whereby migration management takes place via the adoption of substantive criminal law, via recourse to traditional criminal law enforcement mechanisms including surveillance and detention, and via the development of mechanisms of prevention and pre-emption. The book provides a typology of criminalisation of migration, structured on the basis of the three stages of the migrant experience: criminalisation before entry (examining criminalisation in the context of extraterritorial immigration control, delegation and privatisation in immigration control and the securitisation of migration); criminalisation during stay (examining how substantive criminal law is used to regulate migration in the territory); and criminalisation after entry and towards removal (examining efforts to exclude and remove migrants from the territory and jurisdiction of EU Member States and criminalisation through detention). The analysis focuses on the impact of the criminalisation of migration on human rights and the rule of law, and it highlights how European Union law (through the application of both the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and general principles of EU law) and ECHR law may contribute towards achieving decriminalisation of migration in Europe.