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Transatlantic Science and Technology

Transatlantic Science and Technology Author Sabine E. Herlitschka
ISBN-10 9781461443858
Release 2012-08-09
Pages 76
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​​​​​​Major societal challenges of a global nature include climate change, efficient energy supply, environmental sustainability, and health care. Science & Technology Policy (S&T) policy is an essential contributor to dealing with these challenges; moreover, international cooperation and collaboration in S&T is vital to tackling these issues, since no single nation or even region is able to respond adequately by itself. Within this context, this book addresses recent developments in transatlantic S&T cooperation between the European Union and the United States. The EU-U.S. relationship dates back to the 1950s, with regular EU-U.S. Summits to assess and develop transatlantic cooperation. In the area of S&T, the EU and U.S. concluded an S&T Cooperation Agreement in 1998, renewed it in 2004, and extended it for another five years in July 2009. The research underlying this study is based on interviews with key stakeholders in the field, with an emphasis on: • potential new opportunities and new mechanisms for increased transatlantic EU – U.S. S&T cooperation under current conditions • examples of coordinated “science diplomacy” efforts • options for the development of effective joint efforts. While the project is focused on European-U.S. relationships, it also addresses issues of international S&T cooperation involving other regions, including Africa and Asia. The author highlights the urgency of S&T cooperation to address global issues, and the evolving roles of government, universities and research centers, and industry, in promoting successful strategies and programs.



Big Data in Context

Big Data in Context Author Thomas Hoeren
ISBN-10 3319624601
Release 2017-10-25
Pages 120
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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book sheds new light on a selection of big data scenarios from an interdisciplinary perspective. It features legal, sociological and economic approaches to fundamental big data topics such as privacy, data quality and the ECJ’s Safe Harbor decision on the one hand, and practical applications such as smart cars, wearables and web tracking on the other. Addressing the interests of researchers and practitioners alike, it provides a comprehensive overview of and introduction to the emerging challenges regarding big data.All contributions are based on papers submitted in connection with ABIDA (Assessing Big Data), an interdisciplinary research project exploring the societal aspects of big data and funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.This volume was produced as a part of the ABIDA project (Assessing Big Data, 01IS15016A-F). ABIDA is a four-year collaborative project funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. However the views and opinions expressed in this book reflect only the authors’ point of view and not necessarily those of all members of the ABIDA project or the Federal Ministry of Education and Research.



The Impact of Climate Change on Our Life

The Impact of Climate Change on Our Life Author Abdelnaser Omran
ISBN-10 9789811077487
Release 2018-02-23
Pages 250
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This book introduces the highly topical issue from many different angles, sensitizing readers to the various challenges to human life posed by climate change, identifying possible intentional and inadvertent anthropogenic factors and consequences, and seeking socially and environmentally viable solutions. The book begins by examining the impact of the climate change discussion on science, politics, economy and culture – from its historical origin in the first Club of Rome Report and its inclusion in the UN's SDGs to the Paris Agreement and beyond. Comprising 12 chapters, it analyses the factors which caused the catastrophic 2014 Kelantan flood in Malaysia, focusing on the Kuala Krai district and discusses mud architecture in Wadi Hadramout, Yemen and mitigating the expected effects of climate change on this unique architecture and cultural heritage. It also examines the economic costs of climate change on health and the increased burden on individual expenditures and national health systems. The role of climate change in the water-energy nexus and efforts to increase efficiency in energy and water end-use to increase Queensland’s agricultural sector’s resilience in Australia is addressed, as is water security and climate change issues in developing countries and the potential of partnership procurement strategies for managing sustainable urban water supply in Nigerian cities. It also includes a chapter offering a new approach to waste management, exploring to what extent waste can complicate our daily actions and influence environmental decay, and recommending that renewable materials be sorted and separated from other types of materials to avoid cross-contamination, to increase the value of the materials, and to ease the process of manufacturing. Subsequent chapters identify factors sustaining the municipal solid waste management and practices in Ajdabiya city in Libya, and look at accounting disclosure remedies by exploring areas in which sustainability reporting could expand beyond corporate environmental reporting to additional disclosures, curbing recklessness in pursuing merely economic goals. The book shows – from the perspective of agriculture – how human activities can increase the negative impacts of climate change on lifestyle in Malaysia, suggesting alternative lifestyles and encouraging international cooperative efforts. The last chapters evaluate the impacts of various environmental factors on the local tourism sector in Pakistan, and discuss strategies to tackle climate change, focusing on the opportunities and risks of climate engineering. Since these risks encompass inadvertent negative effects and targeted abuse for covert weather warfare and terrorism that violate the UN’s ENMOD convention, the author recommends viable alternatives to deal with climate change.



Mode 3 Knowledge Production in Quadruple Helix Innovation Systems

Mode 3 Knowledge Production in Quadruple Helix Innovation Systems Author Elias G. Carayannis
ISBN-10 1461420628
Release 2011-12-02
Pages 63
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Developed and developing economies alike face increased resource scarcity and competitive rivalry. In this context, science and technology appear as an essential source of competitive and sustainable advantage at national and regional levels. However, the key determinant of their efficacy is the quality and quantity of entrepreneurship-enabled innovation that unlocks and captures the benefits of the science enterprise in the form of private, public or hybrid goods. Linking basic and applied research with the market, via technology transfer and commercialization mechanisms, including government-university-industry partnerships and capital investments, constitutes the essential trigger mechanism and driving force of sustainable competitive advantage and prosperity. In this volume, the authors define the terms and principles of knowledge creation, diffusion, and use, and establish a theoretical framework for their study. In particular, they focus on the “Quadruple Helix” model, through which government, academia, industry, and civil society are seen as key actors promoting a democratic approach to innovation through which strategy development and decision making are exposed to feedback from key stakeholders, resulting in socially accountable policies and practices.



How to Do Science with Models

How to Do Science with Models Author Axel Gelfert
ISBN-10 9783319279541
Release 2015-12-21
Pages 135
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Taking scientific practice as its starting point, this book charts the complex territory of models used in science. It examines what scientific models are and what their function is. Reliance on models is pervasive in science, and scientists often need to construct models in order to explain or predict anything of interest at all. The diversity of kinds of models one finds in science – ranging from toy models and scale models to theoretical and mathematical models – has attracted attention not only from scientists, but also from philosophers, sociologists, and historians of science. This has given rise to a wide variety of case studies that look at the different uses to which models have been put in specific scientific contexts. By exploring current debates on the use and building of models via cutting-edge examples drawn from physics and biology, the book provides broad insight into the methodology of modelling in the natural sciences. It pairs specific arguments with introductory material relating to the ontology and the function of models, and provides some historical context to the debates as well as a sketch of general positions in the philosophy of scientific models in the process.



Ecological Processes at Marine Fronts

Ecological Processes at Marine Fronts Author Eduardo Marcelo Acha
ISBN-10 9783319154794
Release 2015-02-20
Pages 68
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This book reviews and summarizes the results and hypotheses raised by studies directly or indirectly dealing with the ecology of fronts and aims to identify the themes that connect them to produce a synthesis of this knowledge. Though not immediately perceived the ocean is highly structured and fronts are one of the most important components of its structural complexity. Marine fronts have been known since the early 20th Century, however, the more recent availability of high resolution satellite imagery, field measurements and numerical simulations have greatly advanced our understanding of their ecological impact. This work touches on topics such as front types, its biology and its comparisons with other bounderies at sea, as well as comparisons of fronts with terrestrial boundaries and the ‘ecotone’ concept. Furthermore, it also looks at the management and conservation of marine life.



International Business History

International Business History Author Dennis Michael Patrick McCarthy
ISBN-10 0275944131
Release 1994
Pages 290
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This text presents for the first time the history of international business, using both a case and contextual approach. Case studies from around the world are analyzed in both their internal and external contexts. Divided into five geographical sections--Europe, North America, Central America/South America/the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia/the Western Pacific--the text features case studies of particular businesses of various periods, as well as essays on international business and economic integration in the particular regions. Introductions to each section define main themes and relate the case studies to those themes; commentaries introduce each case study and summarize key issues. This pioneering text is suitable for upper-division courses in international business history. It can also serve as a supplementary text in courses in international economic history, international economic relations, economic development, and comparative management



Development Aid Populism and the End of the Neoliberal Agenda

Development Aid   Populism and the End of the Neoliberal Agenda Author Viktor Jakupec
ISBN-10 9783319727486
Release 2017-12-04
Pages 85
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This volume examines the impact of the Trump presidency on development aid. It starts out by describing the rise of national populism, the political landscape and the reasons for rejection of the political establishment, both under Trump and internationally. Next, it gives a historical-political overview of development aid in the post WW-II era and discusses the dominant Washington Consensus doctrine and its failure. It then provides a critique of the Official Development Assistance (ODA) discourse and reviews the political economy of ODA, the discourse, and the conditionalities that are barriers to socio-economic development. The final chapters explore the question of Trumponomics as an alternative to the global neoliberal ODA, and the potential impact of Trumponomics’ on ODA. The book concludes with thoughts on the potential future directions for ODA within the ‘ideals’ of Trumponomics and national populism.



From Smart City to Smart Region

From Smart City to Smart Region Author Corinna Morandi
ISBN-10 9783319173382
Release 2015-08-14
Pages 103
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This book offers a fascinating exploration of the relationship between information and communication technologies (ICTs) and spatial planning, expanding the concept of “urban smartness” from the usual scale of buildings or urban projects to the regional dimension. In particular, it presents the outcomes of research undertaken at Politecnico di Milano, in collaboration with Telecom Italia, that had three principal goals: to investigate the use of ICTs for the representation, promotion, management, and dissemination of an integrated system of services; to explore the spatial impacts of digital services at different scales (regional, urban, local); and to understand how a system of mobile services can encourage new spatial uses and new collective behavior in the quest for better spatial quality of places. Useful critical analysis of international case studies is also included with the aim of verifying the opportunities afforded by new digital services not only to improve the urban efficiency but also to foster the evolution of urban communities through enhancement of the public realm. The book will be a source of valuable insights for both scholars and local administrators and operators involved in smart city projects.



Wireless Networked Music Performance

Wireless Networked Music Performance Author Leonardo Gabrielli
ISBN-10 9789811003356
Release 2015-12-29
Pages 109
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This book presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in Networked Music Performance (NMP) and a historical survey of computer music networking. It introduces current technical trends in NMP and technical issues yet to be addressed. It also lists wireless communication protocols and compares these to the requirements of NMP. Practical use cases and advancements are also discussed.



Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology

Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology Author Yi-Wei Tang
ISBN-10 9781461439707
Release 2012-09-14
Pages 957
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In the United States, hospitals annually report over 5 million cases of infectious-disease-related illnesses: clinical microbiology laboratories in these hospitals are engaged in detecting and identifying the pathogenic microorganisms in clinical specimens collected from these patients with suspected infections. Clearly, the timely and accurate detection/identification of these microbial pathogens is critical for patient treatment decisions and outcomes for millions of patients each year. Despite an appreciation that the outcome of an infectious-disease-related illness is directly related to the time required to detect and identify a microbial pathogen, clinical microbiology laboratories in the United States as well as worldwide have long been hampered by traditional culture-based assays, which may require prolonged incubation time for slowly growing microorganisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, traditional culture-based assays often require multiple steps with additional time needed for discernment of species and/or detection of antimicrobial resistance. Finally, these traditional, slow multistep culture-based assays are labor-intensive and required skilled clinical microbiologists at the bench. Over the past several decades, advanced molecular techniques in diagnostic microbiology quietly have been revolutionizing the practice of clinical microbiology in the hospital setting. Indeed, molecular diagnostic testing in general and nucleic-acid-based amplification methods in particular have been heralded as diagnostic tools for the new millennium. There is no question that the development of rapid molecular techniques for nucleic acid amplification/characterization combined with automation and user-friendly software has greatly broadened the diagnostic capabilities of the clinical microbiology laboratory. These technical advances in molecular microbiology over the first decade of the 21st Century have profoundly influenced the physical structure of clinical microbiology laboratories as well as their staffing patterns, workflow, and turnaround time. These molecular microbiology advances have also resulted in the need for a revised and updated second edition of Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology. This second edition again provides an updated and comprehensive description of the ongoing evolution of molecular methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. In addition, many new chapters have been added, including a chapter on the clinical interpretation and relevance of advanced technique results. The second edition, like the first edition, includes both a “techniques” section describing the latest molecular techniques and an “applications” section describing how these advanced molecular techniques are being used in the clinical setting. Finally, the second edition, like the first edition, utilizes a diverse team of authors who have compiled chapters that provide the reader with comprehensive and useable information on advanced molecular microbiology techniques.



Strategy for American Innovation

Strategy for American Innovation Author Barack Obama
ISBN-10 9781437981247
Release 2011-04-01
Pages 22
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Pres. Obama's Innovation Strategy builds on over $100 billion of Recovery Act funds that support innovation, support for educ., infrastructure and others and novel regulatory and exec. order initiatives. It seeks to harness the ingenuity of the Amer. people and a dynamic private sector to ensure that the next expansion is more solid, broad-based, and beneficial than previous ones. The strategy focuses on critical areas where balanced gov't. policies can lay the foundation for innovation that leads to quality jobs and shared prosperity: (1) Invest in the Building Blocks of Amer. Innovation; (2) Promote Competitive Markets that Spur Productive Entrepreneurship; (3) Catalyze Breakthroughs for National Priorities. Illus. This is a print on demand publication.



Collective Rights and Digital Content

Collective Rights and Digital Content Author Cláudio Lucena
ISBN-10 9783319159102
Release 2015-03-09
Pages 50
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This book starts with an exercise, proposing a theoretical reflection on the technological path that, over time, has transformed the ways we produce, consume and manage intellectual content subject to copyright protection. This lays the groundwork for a further analysis of the main legal aspects of the new European Directive, its improvements, its tendencies and its points of controversy, with special and more concrete attention to how it proposes to address the issues of competition, transparency and multi-territorial licensing. Digital technologies, networks and communication have boosted the production and distribution of intellectual content. These activities are based on a renewable and infinite resource – creativity – which turns this content into strategic artistic, cultural, social, economic and informational assets. Managing the rights and obligations that emerge in this system has never been an easy task; managing them collectively, which is more often than not the case, adds even more complexity. The European Directive on collective management of copyright and related rights and multi-territorial licensing of rights in musical works for online use in the internal market is a policy initiative that seeks to establish an adequate legal framework for the collective management of authors’ rights in a digital environment, recognizing this goal as crucial to achieving a fully integrated Single Market. Part of the Digital Agenda for Europe, it is an effort to promote simplification and to enhance the efficiency of collective rights management by tackling three of the main issues that are currently undermining the business model of collecting societies: competition, transparency and multi-territorial licensing. The book is intended to support students, academics and practitioners by enhancing their general and legal grasp of these phenomena, while also encouraging their collaboration with policymakers and other interested parties in the ongoing task of transposing the Directive into concrete national legislation.



Regulatory Theory

Regulatory Theory Author Peter Drahos
ISBN-10 9781760461027
Release 2017-02-23
Pages 783
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This volume introduces readers to regulatory theory. Aimed at practitioners, postgraduate students and those interested in regulation as a cross-cutting theme in the social sciences, Regulatory Theory includes chapters on the social-psychological foundations of regulation as well as theories of regulation such as responsive regulation, smart regulation and nodal governance. It explores the key themes of compliance, legal pluralism, meta-regulation, the rule of law, risk, accountability, globalisation and regulatory capitalism. The environment, crime, health, human rights, investment, migration and tax are among the fields of regulation considered in this ground-breaking book. Each chapter introduces the reader to key concepts and ideas and contains suggestions for further reading. The contributors, who either are or have been connected to the Regulatory Institutions Network (RegNet) at The Australian National University, include John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Peter Grabosky, Neil Gunningham, Fiona Haines, Terry Halliday, David Levi-Faur, Christine Parker, Colin Scott and Clifford Shearing.



Nils Petter Gleditsch Pioneer in the Analysis of War and Peace

Nils Petter Gleditsch  Pioneer in the Analysis of War and Peace Author Nils Petter Gleditsch
ISBN-10 3319038192
Release 2015-08-14
Pages 173
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This book presents Nils Petter Gleditsch, a staff member of the Peace Research Institute of Oslo (PRIO) since 1964, a former editor of the Journal for Peace Research (1983-2010), a former president of the International Studies Association (2008-2009) and the recipient of several academic awards as a pioneer in the scientific analysis of war and peace. This unique anthology covers major themes in his distinguished career as a peace researcher. An autobiographical, critical retrospective puts his work on conflict and peace into a broader context, while a comprehensive bibliography documents his publications over a period of nearly 50 years. Part II documents his wide-ranging contributions on globalization, democratization and liberal peace, on international espionage, environmental security, climate change and conflict and on the decline of war and more generally of violence as a tool in conflict.



The Criminalisation of Migration in Europe

The Criminalisation of Migration in Europe Author Valsamis Mitsilegas
ISBN-10 9783319126586
Release 2014-10-31
Pages 110
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This is the first monograph providing a comprehensive legal analysis of the criminalisation of migration in Europe. The book puts forward a definition of the criminalisation of migration as the three-fold process whereby migration management takes place via the adoption of substantive criminal law, via recourse to traditional criminal law enforcement mechanisms including surveillance and detention, and via the development of mechanisms of prevention and pre-emption. The book provides a typology of criminalisation of migration, structured on the basis of the three stages of the migrant experience: criminalisation before entry (examining criminalisation in the context of extraterritorial immigration control, delegation and privatisation in immigration control and the securitisation of migration); criminalisation during stay (examining how substantive criminal law is used to regulate migration in the territory); and criminalisation after entry and towards removal (examining efforts to exclude and remove migrants from the territory and jurisdiction of EU Member States and criminalisation through detention). The analysis focuses on the impact of the criminalisation of migration on human rights and the rule of law, and it highlights how European Union law (through the application of both the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and general principles of EU law) and ECHR law may contribute towards achieving decriminalisation of migration in Europe.



Novel Insights in the Neurochemistry and Function of Pulmonary Sensory Receptors

Novel Insights in the Neurochemistry and Function of Pulmonary Sensory Receptors Author Inge Brouns
ISBN-10 3642227724
Release 2011-10-06
Pages 118
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With the advances of immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy, airway sensory receptor end-organs can now be examined and evaluated objectively. Based on their ‘neurochemical coding’, morphology, location and origin, three sensory receptor end organs are currently morphologically well-characterised: smooth muscle-associated airway receptors (SMARs), neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) and visceral pleura receptors (VPRs). The present information on the functional morphological and neurochemical characteristics of these sensory receptors, leads to important conclusions about their (possible) function.