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Truth in Science the Humanities and Religion

Truth in Science  the Humanities and Religion Author International Balzan Foundation
ISBN-10 1402098960
Release 2010-06-14
Pages 192
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by the Academies of the two countries – to the Italian-Swiss University of Lugano for the two-day-Symposium. The question of the meaning of “truth” is central to many areas of contemporary debate, whether between those subscribing to a post-Enlightenment view of the world and those who seek fundamental truth in religious texts, or between those maintaining that there are absolute truths and those believing facts to be social constructs. For some, the ultimate truth is revealed through religious faith and t- tual authority. Can this view be reconciled with an evidence-based, materialist, post-Enlightenment perspective of the truth as embraced by the natural sciences? If religion holds the key to the truth, which religion and which truths? During the five thematic sessions of the symposium, all attended by the same audience and by all the speakers and panel members, these and many other qu- tions, but in particular the one about the meaning of truth, were examined and debated. The whole range of perspectives represented on the panels and in the au- ence came to the fore. After the keynote lecture by Professor Simon Blackburn, the five sessions covered the following disciplines: philosophy, mathematics, physics, cosmology, the biological sciences including biodiversity and sustainability, h- tory, the social sciences, theology and religion. This volume contains the speakers’ lectures, the corresponding reactions of the invited panel members as well as the panel and general discussions of the two-d- symposium.



Liberal Education and Its Discontents

Liberal Education and Its Discontents Author Shashikala Srinivasan
ISBN-10 9780429835308
Release 2018-08-06
Pages 246
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What explains the peculiar trajectory of the university and liberal education in India? Can we understand the crisis in the university in terms of the idea of education underlying it? This book explores these vital questions and traces the intellectual history of the idea of education and the cluster of concepts associated with it. It probes into the cultural roots of liberal education and seeks to understand its scope, effects and limits when transplanted into the Indian context. With an extensive analysis of the philosophical writing on the idea of university and education in the West and colonial documents on education in India, the book reconstructs the ideas of Gandhi and Tagore on education and learning as a radical alternative to the inherited, European model. The author further reflects upon how we can successfully deepen liberal education in India as well as construct alternative models that will help us diversify higher learning for future generations. Lucid, extensive and of immediate interest, this book will be useful for scholars and researchers interested in the history and philosophy of education and culture, social epistemology, ethics, postcolonial studies, cultural studies and public policy.



How to Read the Qur an

How to Read the Qur an Author Carl W. Ernst
ISBN-10 9780807869079
Release 2011-12-05
Pages 288
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For anyone, non-Muslim or Muslim, who wants to know how to approach, read, and understand the text of the Qur'an, How to Read the Qur'an offers a compact introduction and reader's guide. Using a chronological reading of the text according to the conclusions of modern scholarship, Carl W. Ernst offers a nontheological approach that treats the Qur'an as a historical text that unfolded over time, in dialogue with its audience, during the career of the Prophet Muhammad.



A Course in Mathematical Logic for Mathematicians

A Course in Mathematical Logic for Mathematicians Author Yu. I. Manin
ISBN-10 9781441906151
Release 2009-10-13
Pages 384
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1. The ?rst edition of this book was published in 1977. The text has been well received and is still used, although it has been out of print for some time. In the intervening three decades, a lot of interesting things have happened to mathematical logic: (i) Model theory has shown that insights acquired in the study of formal languages could be used fruitfully in solving old problems of conventional mathematics. (ii) Mathematics has been and is moving with growing acceleration from the set-theoretic language of structures to the language and intuition of (higher) categories, leaving behind old concerns about in?nities: a new view of foundations is now emerging. (iii) Computer science, a no-nonsense child of the abstract computability theory, has been creatively dealing with old challenges and providing new ones, such as the P/NP problem. Planning additional chapters for this second edition, I have decided to focus onmodeltheory,the conspicuousabsenceofwhichinthe ?rsteditionwasnoted in several reviews, and the theory of computation, including its categorical and quantum aspects. The whole Part IV: Model Theory, is new. I am very grateful to Boris I. Zilber, who kindly agreed to write it. It may be read directly after Chapter II. The contents of the ?rst edition are basically reproduced here as Chapters I–VIII. Section IV.7, on the cardinality of the continuum, is completed by Section IV.7.3, discussing H. Woodin’s discovery.



L idea di incompletezza

L idea di incompletezza Author Salvatore Veca
ISBN-10 9788858800300
Release 2010-10-18T00:00:00+02:00
Pages 170
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Salvatore Veca affida a questo libro, L'idea di incompletezza, gli esiti di una lunga ricerca filosofica che prende le mosse dal suo volume più importante, Dell'incertezza. In Dell'incertezza la questione centrale coincideva con l'esame delle differenti circostanze in cui si formulano per noi domande di teoria: nello spazio dell'impresa scientifica, dell'indagine etica e politica, nell'ambito delle questioni d'identità. Le lezioni sull'idea di incompletezza esplorano ora la natura delle risposte che noi diamo, in una varietà di circostanze, a quelle domande di teoria. Insieme, incertezza e incompletezza diventano dunque le due modalità fondamentali di un pensiero filosofico che coerentemente non si ritira di fronte ai limiti della conoscenza e neppure si erge a suo arbitro: l'incertezza della teoria non ci deve fare arretrare, e l'incompletezza delle risposte è specularmente l'opportunità, e forse il motore, che ci consente l'aggiustamento teorico.Nelle prime due lezioni Veca si interroga sull'incompletezza delle nostre teorie etiche e politiche e dei nostri impegni per giustificare, criticare o difendere princìpi e valori. Nella terza lezione l'analisi si concentra sull'incompletezza dell'interpretazione, entrando nel vivo e prendendo posizione in uno dei dibattiti più "caldi" degli ultimi anni. Infine, nell'ultima lezione, la ricerca di Veca si mette alla prova con i celebri teoremi di incompletezza di Kurt Gödel nell'ambito delle teorie della dimostrazione, evidenziando le analogie e le differenze cui, in distinti contesti, va incontro l'idea di incompletezza. La convinzione che emerge da queste pagine, ricche di riferimenti alla storia delle idee, alla letteratura, all'arte, alla scienza e alla religione, è che l'incompletezza si addica perfettamente alla filosofia stessa. L'incompletezza ci induce a esplorare lo spazio delle possibilità e delle alternative. Uno spazio in cui i confini fra i saperi si fanno porosi, e la cui fisionomia è esposta incessantemente alla sorte del mutamento e della metamorfosi..



Mathematics as Metaphor

Mathematics as Metaphor Author I͡U. I. Manin
ISBN-10 9780821843314
Release 2007
Pages 232
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The book includes fifteen essays and an interview. The essays are grouped in three parts: Mathematics; Mathematics and Physics; and Language, Consciousness, and Book reviews. Most of the essays are about some aspects of epistemology and the history of sciences, mainly mathematics, physics, and the history of language. English translations of some of the essays, originally published in Russian, appear for the first time in this selection. One of them is the introduction to the book Computable and Uncomputable, where the idea of a quantum computer was first proposed in 1980. Another is an essay on the mythological trickster figure, where the evolutionary role of manipulative behavior is discussed in connection with the problem of the origin of human language. With the foreword by Freeman Dyson, this book will be of interest to anyone interested in the philosophy and history of mathematics, physics, and linguistics.



Of Moon and Land Ice and Strand

Of Moon and Land  Ice and Strand Author Kurt Lambeck
ISBN-10 8822263391
Release 2014
Pages 86
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Of Moon and Land, Ice and Strand encompasses the four elements constituting the principal directions of Lambeck's research over the past five decades: the Moon and artificial satellites; the Earth's surface, crust and deep interior; the ice sheets of the geologically recent past; and aspects of the oceans and the coastal zones. In this lecture, Lambeck shows us what can be learnt from the analysis of past sea-level data, for example complementing glaciological and geological models of past events, or gaining insight into the material behaviour of the Earth (the mantle response function). Most importantly, observations of the ice histories and mantle response functions can be unscrambled to provide models with predictive capabilities, and this has implications for other fields of science like archaeology, pre-history paleogeography and the study of modern sea-level change.



The Metaphysics of Science

The Metaphysics of Science Author Craig Dilworth
ISBN-10 9781402038389
Release 2007-10-04
Pages 333
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This book provides a clear, well-founded conception of modern science. The views advanced are not only novel, but they constitute an alternative that is superior to both the empiric-analytic and the sociology of knowledge approaches that are prevalent today. Furthermore, the book provides a resolution of the long-standing debate between empiricism and realism, and it gives a coherent view that transcends the boundaries of the professional philosophy of science.



Humanists with Inky Fingers

Humanists with Inky Fingers Author Anthony Grafton
ISBN-10 8822261275
Release 2011
Pages 84
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Humanists with Inky Fingers has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Humanists with Inky Fingers also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Humanists with Inky Fingers book for free.



Causation Coherence and Concepts

Causation  Coherence and Concepts Author W. Spohn
ISBN-10 9781402054747
Release 2008-11-14
Pages 386
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In this collection I present 16 of my, I feel, more substantial papers on theoretical philosophy, 12 as originally published, one co-authored with Ulrike Haas-Spohn (Chapter14), one (Chapter 15) that was a brief conference commentary, but is in fact a suitable appendix to Chapter 14, one as a translation of a German paper (Chapter 12), and one newly written for this volume (Chapter 16), which, however, is only my recent attempt to properly and completely express an argument I had given in two earlier papers. I gratefully acknowledge permission of reprint from the relevant publishers at the beginning of each paper. In disciplinary terms the papers cover epistemology, general philosophy of science, philosophy of language, and philosophy of mind. The section titles Belief, Causation, Laws, Coherence, and Concepts and the paper titles give a more adequate impression of the topics dealt with. The papers are tightly connected. I feel they might be even read as unfolding a program, though this program was never fully clear in my mind and still isn’t. In the Introduction I attempt to describe what this program might be, thus drawing a reconstructed red thread, or rather two red threads, through all the papers. This will serve, at the same time, as an overview over the papers collected.



Mind Values and Metaphysics

Mind  Values  and Metaphysics Author Anne Reboul
ISBN-10 9783319041995
Release 2014-08-13
Pages 536
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This book addresses five main topics of metaphysics in its first section: formal objects and truth-makers; tropes; properties and predicates; varieties of relations; and the notion of explanation in metaphysics. The second part of this volume focuses on the history of philosophy with an emphasis on Austrian philosophy: the ideas of Bolzano, Wittgenstein, Locke and Bergson, amongst others, are explored in the papers presented here. This is the first volume in a two-volume set that originates from papers presented to Professor Kevin Mulligan, covering the subjects that he contributed to during his career including ontology, mind and value, history and philosophy of mind and philosophy of language. This volume contains thirty two chapters, written by researchers from across Europe, North America and North Africa. These papers cover topics in metaphysics ranging from Lehrer and Tolliver’s discussion of truth and tropes, to Johansson’s defence of the distinction between thick and thin relations and Persson and Sahlin’s presentation of the difficulties inherent in applying the concept of explanation in metaphysics. Papers on the history of philosophy include a look at Bolzano’s formative years and his conception of mathematics. De Libera examines Brentano’s adverbial theory of judgment and Fisette traces the history of the Philosophical Society of the University of Vienna in the late 19th and early 20th century. Marion contests the trendy pragmatist accounts that lump Wittgenstein and Heidegger together and there are analyses of Locke and Bergson’s work, amongst the many papers presented here. This volume contains three chapters in French and one in Spanish. The second volume of this set looks at ethics, values and emotions, epistemology, perception and consciousness, as well as philosophy of mind and philosophy of language.



Mathematics and Physics

Mathematics and Physics Author MANIN
ISBN-10 9781489967824
Release 2013-12-19
Pages 99
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Mathematics and Physics has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Mathematics and Physics also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Mathematics and Physics book for free.



Explanation in the Special Sciences

Explanation in the Special Sciences Author Marie I. Kaiser
ISBN-10 9789400775633
Release 2013-11-29
Pages 366
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Biology and history are often viewed as closely related disciplines, with biology informed by history, especially in its task of charting our evolutionary past. Maximizing the opportunities for cross-fertilization in these two fields requires an accurate reckoning of their commonalities and differences—precisely what this volume sets out to achieve. Specially commissioned essays by a team of recognized international researchers cover the full panoply of topics in these fields and include notable contributions on the correlativity of evolutionary and historical explanations, applying to history the latest causal-mechanical approach in the philosophy of biology, and the question of generalized laws that might pertain across the two subjects. The collection opens with a vital interrogation of general issues on explanation that apart from potentially fruitful areas of interaction (could the etiology of the causal-mechanical perspective in biology account for the historical trajectory of the Roman Empire?) this volume also seeks to chart relative certainties distinguishing explanations in biology and history. It also assesses techniques such as the use of probabilities in biological reconstruction, deployed to overcome the inevitable gaps in physical evidence on early evolution. Methodologies such as causal graphs and semantic explanation receive in-depth analysis. Contributions from a host of prominent and widely read philosophers ensure that this new volume has the stature of a major addition to the literature. ​



Structures in Science

Structures in Science Author Theo A.F. Kuipers
ISBN-10 9789401597395
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 414
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Although there is an abundance of highly specialized monographs, learned collections and general introductions to the philosophy of science, only a few 25 years. synthetic monographs and advanced textbooks have appeared in the last The philosophy of science seems to have lost its self-confidence. The main reason for such a loss is that the traditional analytical, logical-empiricist approaches to the philosophy of science had to make a number of concessions, especially in response to the work of Popper, Kuhn and Lakatos. With Structures in Science I intend to present both a synthetic mono graph and an advanced textbook that accommodates and integrates the insight of these philosophers, in what I like to call a neo-classical approach. The resulting monograph elaborates several important topics from one or more perspectives, by distinguishing various kinds of research programs, and various ways of explaining and reducing laws and concepts, and by summarizing an integrated explication (presented in From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism, ICR) of the notions of confirmation, empirical progress and truth approximation.



From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism

From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism Author Theo A.F. Kuipers
ISBN-10 9789401716185
Release 2013-04-18
Pages 372
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Surprisingly, modified versions of the confirmation theory (Carnap and Hempel) and truth approximation theory (Popper) turn out to be smoothly sythesizable. The glue between the two appears to be the instrumentalist methodology, rather than that of the falsificationalist. The instrumentalist methodology, used in the separate, comparative evaluation of theories in terms of their successes and problems (hence, even if already falsified), provides in theory and practice the straight road to short-term empirical progress in science ( à la Laudan). It is also argued that such progress is also functional for all kinds of truth approximation: observational, referential, and theoretical. This sheds new light on the long-term dynamics of science and hence on the relation between the main epistemological positions, viz., instrumentalism (Toulmin, Laudan), constructive empiricism (Van Fraassen), referential realism (Hacking, Cartwright), and theory realism of a non-essentialist nature (constructive realism à la Popper). Readership: Open minded philosophers and scientists. The book explains and justifies the scientist's intuition that the debate among philosophers about instrumentalism and realism has almost no practical consequences.



The Problem of Rationality in Science and its Philosophy

The Problem of Rationality in Science and its Philosophy Author J. Misiek
ISBN-10 9789401104616
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 276
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Rationality of science was the topic of two conferences (held in 1988 and 1989) organized by the Department of Philosophy of Science, Institute of Philosophy, Jagiellonian University. Both conferences included a small group of invited speakers. This book contains a selection of papers presented there. It is intended mainly for specialists in the philosophy of science and scientists interested in philosophy. Students and especially postgraduate students would also benefit from reading it. The first conference, 'Popper, Polanyi and the Notion of Rationality', was held from 1 to 5 October 1988 in Janowice. The second conference, 'The Aim and Rationality of Science', was held in Cracow at the Jagiellonian Univer sity, from 4-10 June 1989. The topics of both conferences were inspired by our late friend Dr. Tomasz Kocowski, who many years earlier invited me and my colleagues from the Department to participate in research concerning the problem of creativity, and serve him and other psychologists as methodological advisors. Personal contacts with this intelligent and inquisitive man helped us to realize that we could not fulfill our task while adhering to the received view in the philoso phy of science. This experience helped us to see science not only as scientific knowledge but also as a process of research. We then turned our attention to Michael Polanyi, who seemed to provide the philosophy we were looking for.



Local Governments and Climate Change

Local Governments and Climate Change Author Maryke van Staden
ISBN-10 9781402095313
Release 2010-04-05
Pages 434
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Global warming is changing the world as we know it. Climate change can have catastrophic impacts in numerous cities across the world. It is time for us to react – quickly and effectively. The European Community (EC) has been leading the fight against climate change, making it one of its top priorities. We have introduced the most ambitious targets of their kind, known as the “20/20/20 by 2020” initiative within the “Climate Action and Renewable Energy Package.” As a result, European Member States have taken on a commitment to curb their CO emissions by at least 20% by 2020. 2 These targets are indeed commendable; however, they are only the start if we are to avoid the consequences of global warming. Whilst top level coordination from the European Institutions and Member State governments is vital, the role of mitigating and adapting to climate change at local level must not be forgotten. In fact, here cities, regions and their citizens play a significant a role. It is therefore vital they become directly involved in the climate change challenge. The European Commission therefore launched in 2008 a new initiative, the Covenant of Mayors, which brings together a network of European mayors in a voluntary effort to go beyond the European Union’s already ambitious targets. Half of our greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) are created in and by cities.