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Urban Mining Systems

Urban Mining Systems Author Takshi Nakamura
ISBN-10 9784431550754
Release 2014-08-12
Pages 50
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This book focuses on the fundamental concept of and current endeavors in “urban mining” among those who are interested in both metal resources and ecology. Systems for recycling and reusing precious metals and rare-earth minerals contained in used and discarded electronics are introduced in this book. The target audience is not academic researchers in the resource management and ecology fields but, rather, citizens who are concerned about our future environment and want to do something for the future.



Mapping Urban Practices Through Mobile Phone Data

Mapping Urban Practices Through Mobile Phone Data Author Paola Pucci
ISBN-10 9783319148335
Release 2015-02-18
Pages 90
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This book explains the potential value of using mobile phone data to monitor urban practices and identify rhythms of use in today’s cities. Drawing upon research conducted in the Italian region of Lombardy, the authors demonstrate how maps based on mobile phone data, which are better tailored to the dynamic processes at work in cities, can document urban practices, provide new insights into spatial and temporal patterns of mobility, and assist in recognizing different communities of practice. The described methodology permits detailed visualization of the spatial distribution of mobility flows and offers a more extensive and refined description of the distribution of urban activity than is provided by traditional travel surveys. The book also details how maps derived by processing mobile phone data can assist in the definition of urban policies that will deliver services that match cities’ needs, facilitate the management of large events (inflow, outflow, and monitoring), and reflect time-dependent phenomena not included in traditional analyses.



Visualizing the Data City

Visualizing the Data City Author Paolo Ciuccarelli
ISBN-10 9783319021959
Release 2014-02-17
Pages 76
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This book investigates novel methods and technologies for the collection, analysis and representation of real-time user-generated data at the urban scale in order to explore potential scenarios for more participatory design, planning and management processes. For this purpose, the authors present a set of experiments conducted in collaboration with urban stakeholders at various levels (including citizens, city administrators, urban planners, local industries and NGOs) in Milan and New York in 2012. It is examined whether geo-tagged and user-generated content can be of value in the creation of meaningful, real-time indicators of urban quality, as it is perceived and communicated by the citizens. The meanings that people attach to places are also explored to discover what such an urban semantic layer looks like and how it unfolds over time. As a conclusion, recommendations are proposed for the exploitation of user-generated content in order to answer hitherto unsolved urban questions. Readers will find in this book a fascinating exploration of techniques for mining the social web that can be applied to procure user-generated content as a means of investigating urban dynamics.



Emergency Response Decision Support System

Emergency Response Decision Support System Author Siqing Shan
ISBN-10 9789811035425
Release 2017-02-15
Pages 70
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This book mainly addresses the Emergency Response Decision Support System (ERDSS) and its applications, making use of ten related modules and a number of key technologies, especially Disaster Assessing Technology, Adaptive Information Evaluation Technology and Knowledge Management Technology. The book is especially valuable in coping with disasters that result in the loss of human life and property, and which threaten the stability of our societies. The ERDSS enables people to prepare for potential incidents, to rapidly respond to them, and to cope with their aftermath. Presenting practical solutions, this book helps readers to understand the ERDSS and effectively respond to emergency events.



Weighting Methods and their Effects on Multi Criteria Decision Making Model Outcomes in Water Resources Management

Weighting Methods and their Effects on Multi Criteria Decision Making Model Outcomes in Water Resources Management Author Noorul Hassan Zardari
ISBN-10 9783319125862
Release 2014-10-30
Pages 166
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This book provides a systematic way of how to make better decisions in water resources management. The applications of three weighting methods namely rating, ranking, and ratio are discussed in this book. Additionally, data mining on keywords is presented using three popular scholarly databases: Science Direct, Scopus, and SciVerse. Four abbreviated keywords (MCDM, MCDA, MCA, MADM) representing multi-criteria decision-making were used and these three databases were searched for different popular weighting methods for a period of 13 years (2000-2012). The book provides also a review of weighting methods applied in various multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods and also presents survey results on priority ranking of watershed management criteria undertaken by 30 undergraduate and postgraduate students from the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.



Materials that Change Color

Materials that Change Color Author Marinella Ferrara
ISBN-10 9783319002903
Release 2013-11-18
Pages 139
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This book presents a design-driven investigation into smart materials developed by chemists, physicists, materials and chemical engineers, and applied by designers to consumer products. Introducing a class of smart materials, that change colors, the book presents their characteristics, advantages, potentialities and difficulties of applications of this to help understanding what they are, how they work, how they are applied. The books also present a number of case studies: products, projects, concepts and experiments using smart materials, thus mapping out new design territories for these innovative materials. These case studies involve different fields of design, including product, interior, fashion and communication design. Within the context of rising sustainable and human-centered design agendas, the series will demonstrate the role and influence of these new materials and technologies on design, and discuss how they can implement and redefine our objects and spaces to encourage more resilient environments.



From Smart City to Smart Region

From Smart City to Smart Region Author Corinna Morandi
ISBN-10 9783319173382
Release 2015-08-14
Pages 103
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This book offers a fascinating exploration of the relationship between information and communication technologies (ICTs) and spatial planning, expanding the concept of “urban smartness” from the usual scale of buildings or urban projects to the regional dimension. In particular, it presents the outcomes of research undertaken at Politecnico di Milano, in collaboration with Telecom Italia, that had three principal goals: to investigate the use of ICTs for the representation, promotion, management, and dissemination of an integrated system of services; to explore the spatial impacts of digital services at different scales (regional, urban, local); and to understand how a system of mobile services can encourage new spatial uses and new collective behavior in the quest for better spatial quality of places. Useful critical analysis of international case studies is also included with the aim of verifying the opportunities afforded by new digital services not only to improve the urban efficiency but also to foster the evolution of urban communities through enhancement of the public realm. The book will be a source of valuable insights for both scholars and local administrators and operators involved in smart city projects.



Ecotechnologies for the Treatment of Variable Stormwater and Wastewater Flows

Ecotechnologies for the Treatment of Variable Stormwater and Wastewater Flows Author Katharina Tondera
ISBN-10 9783319700137
Release 2017-11-15
Pages 127
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This book provides an essential overview of ecotechnologies (also known as green infrastructure or nature-based solutions) which are considered to be relatively resilient to variations in stormwater and wastewater inflow. In particular, it focuses on various types of constructed wetlands, biofilters and ponds. Stormwater flows are inherently variable, due to rainfall events and fluctuations in loading. This variability has significant effects on the performance of treatment systems, but has rarely been specifically addressed in design manuals, performance assessments or modelling. The book’s respective chapters cover the main contaminant categories of interest (nutrients, faecal microbes, metals and emerging contaminants) and their removal processes using ecotechnologies, addressing urban, industrial and agricultural applications. In addition, they review modelling tools with the potential to improve our understanding of flow variability and the ability to simulate and predict responses to it.



The Illusion of Risk Control

The Illusion of Risk Control Author Gilles Motet
ISBN-10 9783319329390
Release 2017-08-01
Pages 112
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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book explores the implications of acknowledging uncertainty and black swans for regulation of high-hazard technologies, for stakeholder acceptability of potentially hazardous activities and for risk governance. The conventional approach to risk assessment, which combines the likelihood of an event and the severity of its consequences, is poorly suited to situations where uncertainty and ambiguity are prominent features of the risk landscape. The new definition of risk used by ISO, “the effect of uncertainty on [achievement of] one’s objectives”, recognizes this paradigm change. What lessons can we draw from the management of fire hazards in Edo-era Japan? Are there situations in which increasing uncertainty allows more effective safety management? How should society address the risk of potentially planet-destroying scientific experiments? This book presents insights from leading scholars in different disciplines to challenge current risk governance and safety management practice.



Thermal Effects in Supercapacitors

Thermal Effects in Supercapacitors Author Guoping Xiong
ISBN-10 9783319202426
Release 2015-06-17
Pages 147
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This Brief reviews contemporary research conducted in university and industry laboratories on thermal management in electrochemical energy storage systems (capacitors and batteries) that have been widely used as power sources in many practical applications, such as automobiles, hybrid transport, renewable energy installations, power backup and electronic devices. Placing a particular emphasis on supercapacitors, the authors discuss how supercapacitors, or ultra capacitors, are complementing and replacing, batteries because of their faster power delivery, longer life cycle and higher coulombic efficiency, while providing higher energy density than conventional electrolytic capacitors. Recent advances in both macro- and micro capacitor technologies are covered. The work facilitates systematic understanding of thermal transport in such devices that can help develop better power management systems.



Ethics Dumping

Ethics Dumping Author Doris Schroeder
ISBN-10 9783319647319
Release 2017-12-04
Pages 134
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This book is published under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book provides original, up-to-date case studies of “ethics dumping” that were largely facilitated by loopholes in the ethics governance of low and middle-income countries. It is instructive even to experienced researchers since it provides a voice to vulnerable populations from the fore mentioned countries. Ensuring the ethical conduct of North-South collaborations in research is a process fraught with difficulties. The background conditions under which such collaborations take place include extreme differentials in available income and power, as well as a past history of colonialism, while differences in culture can add a new layer of complications. In this context, up-to-date case studies of unethical conduct are essential for research ethics training.



Waveform Analysis of Sound

Waveform Analysis of Sound Author Mikio Tohyama
ISBN-10 9784431544241
Release 2015-01-10
Pages 229
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What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduate students who are interested in the mathematical representation of signals and the applications of Fourier analysis. The book can be described as being practically self-contained but does assume readers are familiar with introductory topics in discrete signal processing, as in the discrete Fourier transform. Hence this book might be also usable as a textbook in graduate courses in applied mathematics on topics such as complex functions. Almost all scientific phenomena are sensed as waves propagating in some space. Over the years, waveform analysis has therefore been one of the resilient academic areas of study and still is seen as fertile ground for development. In particular, waveform analysis based on the theory of linear systems would be a good example where a physical interpretation can be given to the mathematical theory of complex functions in terms of magnitude, angle, poles, and zeros of complex functions. For readers who are interested in the physical aspects of sound and vibration data or elementary formulation of wave equations and their solutions, the book Sound and Signals by M. Tohyama (Springer 2011) is recommended. It can serve as a complementary companion to this present volume or independently as a good reference.



Community Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations

Community Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations Author Georgios Leventakis
ISBN-10 9783319892948
Release 2018-04-26
Pages 131
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This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches - Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces - Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the community Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.



Smart Modeling and Simulation for Complex Systems

Smart Modeling and Simulation for Complex Systems Author Quan Bai
ISBN-10 9784431552093
Release 2015-01-10
Pages 149
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This book aims to provide a description of these new Artificial Intelligence technologies and approaches to the modeling and simulation of complex systems, as well as an overview of the latest scientific efforts in this field such as the platforms and/or the software tools for smart modeling and simulating complex systems. These tasks are difficult to accomplish using traditional computational approaches due to the complex relationships of components and distributed features of resources, as well as the dynamic work environments. In order to effectively model the complex systems, intelligent technologies such as multi-agent systems and smart grids are employed to model and simulate the complex systems in the areas of ecosystem, social and economic organization, web-based grid service, transportation systems, power systems and evacuation systems.



Field Archaeology from Around the World

Field Archaeology from Around the World Author Martin Carver
ISBN-10 9783319098197
Release 2014-11-26
Pages 245
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Field practice in archaeology varies greatly throughout the world, mainly because archaeological sites survive in very different ways in different counties. Many manuals see this as a problem - to be defeated by the imposition of standardised procedures. In this book we relish the variety of field practice, seeing it rather as the way the best archaeologists have responded creatively to the challenges of terrain, research objectives and the communities within which they work. While insisting on the highest levels of investigation, we celebrate the different designs, concepts, scientific detection methods and recording systems applied - so embracing standards, but not standardisation. The book is organised in four parts: Part 1 offers a summary of field procedures. Part 2 reviews the principal methods applied, above and below ground, and how the results are analysed. Part 3 illustrates the huge variety confronted by field workers with a series of exemplary commercial and academic projects enacted in downland, jungle, desert, permafrost, road schemes and towns. Approaches also differ according to the traditional methodologies that have evolved in particular countries. In Part 4 we give examples of some the strongest and oldest of those practised on four continents. ​



Analysis and Control of Complex Dynamical Systems

Analysis and Control of Complex Dynamical Systems Author Kazuyuki Aihara
ISBN-10 9784431550136
Release 2015-03-20
Pages 211
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This book is the first to report on theoretical breakthroughs on control of complex dynamical systems developed by collaborative researchers in the two fields of dynamical systems theory and control theory. As well, its basic point of view is of three kinds of complexity: bifurcation phenomena subject to model uncertainty, complex behavior including periodic/quasi-periodic orbits as well as chaotic orbits, and network complexity emerging from dynamical interactions between subsystems. Analysis and Control of Complex Dynamical Systems offers a valuable resource for mathematicians, physicists, and biophysicists, as well as for researchers in nonlinear science and control engineering, allowing them to develop a better fundamental understanding of the analysis and control synthesis of such complex systems.



Acid Mine Drainage in South Africa

Acid Mine Drainage in South Africa Author Suvania Naidoo
ISBN-10 9783319444352
Release 2016-10-13
Pages 128
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This SpringerBrief focuses on Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) in the three basins in the Witwatersrand, South Africa. It provides a background to AMD and its impactsfrom a social science perspective.The South African government and non-governmental organizations’ response to AMD is assessed, as well the socio-economic and developmental effects of AMD. This volume, which is based on the author’s Master’s dissertation at UNISA, involves interviews with a range of experts in the field from government departments, environmental organisations (activists), the private sector (mining), tourism sector and the agricultural sector. The book discusses existing policy documents on AMD and provides recommendations in response to the many socio-economic impacts which have not been fully addressed. A literature review on the global context of AMD is provided. South Africa’s water systems are already severely harmed by climate change, different forms of pollution, and poorly managed sanitation systems. For these reasons, the country is becoming increasingly water-stressed and therefore, water will continue to become much scarcer in the future. As a result of AMD’s continued impact on South Africa’s water systems, as a technical or scientific matter as well as the policy implications for the mining sector, water security and socio-economic sustainability has become a highly contested issue.