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Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers

Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers Author John D. Ferry
ISBN-10 0471048941
Release 1980-09-16
Pages 641
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Viscoelastic behavior reflects the combined viscous and elastic responses, under mechanical stress, of materials which are intermediate between liquids and solids in character. Polymers—the basic materials of the rubber and plastic industries and important to the textile, petroleum, automobile, paper, and pharmaceutical industries as well—exhibit viscoelasticity to a pronounced degree. Their viscoelastic properties determine the mechanical performance of the final products of these industries, and also the success of processing methods at intermediate stages of production. Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers examines, in detail, the effects of the many variables on which the basic viscoelastic properties depend. These include temperature, pressure, and time; polymer chemical composition, molecular weight and weight distribution, branching and crystallinity; dilution with solvents or plasticizers; and mixture with other materials to form composite systems. With guidance by molecular theory, the dependence of viscoelastic properties on these variables can be simplified by introducing certain ancillary concepts such as the fractional free volume, the monomeric friction coefficient, and the spacing between entanglement loci, to provide a qualitative understanding and in many cases a quantitative prediction of how to achieve desired results. The phenomenological theory of viscoelasticity—which permits interrelation of the results of different types of experiments—is presented first, with many useful approximation procedures for calculations given. A wide variety of experimental methods is then described, with critical evaluation of their applicability to polymeric materials of different consistencies and in different regions of the time scale (or, for oscillating deformations, the frequency scale). A review of the present state of molecular theory follows, so that viscoelasticity can be related to the motions of flexible polymer molecules and their entanglements and network junctions. The dependence of viscoelastic properties on temperature and pressure, and its descriptions using reduced variables, are discussed in detail. Several chapters are then devoted to the dependence of viscoelastic properties on chemical composition, molecular weight, presence of diluents, and other features, for several characteristic classes of polymer materials. Finally, a few examples are given to illustrate the many potential applications of these principles to practical problems in the processing and use of rubbers, plastics, and fibers, and in the control of vibration and noise. The third edition has been brought up to date to reflect the important developments, in a decade of exceptionally active research, which have led to a wider use of polymers, and a wider recognition of the importance and range of application of viscoelastic properties. Additional data have been incorporated, and the book’s chapters on dilute solutions, theory of undiluted polymers, plateau and terminal zones, cross-linked polymers, and concentrated solutions have been extensively rewritten to take into account new theories and new experimental results. Technical managers and research workers in the wide range of industries in which polymers play an important role will find that the book provides basic information for practical applications, and graduate students in chemistry and engineering will find, in its illustrations with real data and real numbers, an accessible introduction to the principles of viscoelasticity.



Properties of Polymers

Properties of Polymers Author D.W. van Krevelen
ISBN-10 9780444596123
Release 2012-12-02
Pages 898
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Properties of Polymers: Their Correlation with Chemical Structure; Their Numerical Estimation and Prediction from Additive Group Contributions summarizes the latest developments regarding polymers, their properties in relation to chemical structure, and methods for estimating and predicting numerical properties from chemical structure. In particular, it examines polymer electrical properties, magnetic properties, and mechanical properties, as well as their crystallization and environmental behavior and failure. The rheological properties of polymer melts and polymer solutions are also considered. Organized into seven parts encompassing 27 chapters, this book begins with an overview of polymer science and engineering, including the typology of polymers and their properties. It then turns to a discussion of thermophysical properties, from transition temperatures to volumetric and calorimetric properties, along with the cohesive aspects and conformation statistics. It also introduces the reader to the behavior of polymers in electromagnetic and mechanical fields of force. The book covers the quantities that influence the transport of heat, momentum, and matter, particularly heat conductivity, viscosity, and diffusivity; properties that control the chemical stability and breakdown of polymers; and polymer properties as an integral concept, with emphasis on processing and product properties. Readers will find tables that give valuable (numerical) data on polymers and include a survey of the group contributions (increments) of almost every additive function considered. This book is a valuable resource for anyone working on practical problems in the field of polymers, including organic chemists, chemical engineers, polymer processers, polymer technologists, and both graduate and PhD students.



Introduction to Polymer Viscoelasticity

Introduction to Polymer Viscoelasticity Author Montgomery T. Shaw
ISBN-10 9780471741824
Release 2005-09-02
Pages 336
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A revised molecular approach to a classic on viscoelastic behavior Because viscoelasticity affects the properties, appearance, processing, and performance of polymers such as rubber, plastic, and adhesives, a proper utilization of such polymers requires a clear understanding of viscoelastic behavior. Now in its third edition, Introduction to Polymer Viscoelasticity remains a classic in the literature of molecular viscoelasticity, bridging the gap between primers on polymer science and advanced research-level monographs. Assuming a molecular, rather than a mechanical approach, the text provides a strong grounding in the fundamental concepts, detailed derivations, and particular attention to assumptions, simplifications, and limitations. This Third Edition has been entirely revised and updated to reflect recent developments in the field. New chapters include: * Phenomenological Treatment of Viscoelasticity * Viscoelastic Models * Time-Temperature Correspondence * Transitions and Relaxation in Polymers * Elasticity of Rubbery Networks * Dielectric and NMR Methods With detailed explanations, corresponding equations, and experimental methods, supported by real-life applications (as well as the inclusion of a CD-ROM with data to support the exercises), this Third Edition provides today's students and professionals with the tools they need to create polymers with more desirable qualities than ever.



Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers

Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers Author Ian M. Ward
ISBN-10 9781118413197
Release 2012-10-22
Pages 480
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Providing an updated and comprehensive account of the properties of solid polymers, the book covers all aspects of mechanical behaviour. This includes finite elastic behavior, linear viscoelasticity and mechanical relaxations, mechanical anisotropy, non-linear viscoelasicity, yield behavior and fracture. New to this edition is coverage of polymer nanocomposites, and molecular interpretations of yield, e.g. Bowden, Young, and Argon. The book begins by focusing on the structure of polymers, including their chemical composition and physical structure. It goes on to discuss the mechanical properties and behaviour of polymers, the statistical molecular theories of the rubber-like state and describes aspects of linear viscoelastic behaviour, its measurement, and experimental studies. Later chapters cover composites and experimental behaviour, relaxation transitions, stress and yielding. The book concludes with a discussion of breaking phenomena.



Polymers

Polymers Author J.M.G. Cowie
ISBN-10 9781420009873
Release 2007-07-27
Pages 520
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Extensively revised and updated to keep abreast of recent advances, Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Third Edition continues to provide a broad-based, high-information text at an introductory, reader-friendly level that illustrates the multidisciplinary nature of polymer science. Adding or amending roughly 50% of the material, this new edition strengthens its aim to contribute a comprehensive treatment by offering a wide and balanced selection of topics across all aspects of the chemistry and physics of polymer science, from synthesis and physical properties to applications. Although the basics of polymer science remain unchanged, significant discoveries in the area of control over molecular weight, macromolecular structure and architecture, and the consequent ability to prepare materials with specific properties receive extensive mention in the third edition. Expanded chapters include controlled radical polymerizations, metallocene chemistry, and the preparation of block and graft copolymers, as well as multiarmed and dendritic structures. Reflecting the growth of polymer applications in industry, the book presents detailed examples to illustrate polymer use in electronic, biological, and medical settings. The authors introduce new understandings of rheological behavior and replace old and outmoded methods of polymer characterization with new and up-to-date techniques. Also new to this edition are a series of problems at the end of each chapter that will test whether the reader has understood the various points and in some cases expand on that knowledge. An accompanying solutions manual is also available for qualifying course adoptions. Offering the highest quality, comprehensive coverage of polymer science in an affordable, accessible format, Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Third Edition continues to provide undergraduate and graduate students and professors with the most complete and current coverage of modern polymer science.



The Elements of Polymer Science and Engineering

The Elements of Polymer Science and Engineering Author Alfred Rudin
ISBN-10 9780323140348
Release 2012-12-02
Pages 485
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This introductory text is intended as the basis for a two or three semester course in synthetic macromolecules. It can also serve as a self-instruction guide for engineers and scientists without formal training in the subject who find themselves working with polymers. For this reason, the material covered begins with basic concepts and proceeds to current practice, where appropriate. * * Serves as both a textbook and an introduction for scientists in the field * Problems accompany each chapter



Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Author Kevin P. Menard
ISBN-10 1420053132
Release 2008-05-28
Pages 240
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Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) has left the domain of the rheologist and has become a prevalent tool in the analytical laboratory. However, information on the use of this important tool is still scattered among a range of books and articles. Novices in the field have to dig through thermal analysis, rheology, and materials texts just to find the basics. Updated with new material, expanded practical explanations, and new applications, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, Second Edition continues to give chemists, engineers, and materials scientists a starting point for applying DMA to their individual fields. It imparts a clear understanding of how DMA works, its advantages, and possible limitations. Additional topics include stress/strain, data handling, experimental technology, test methods, and data analysis. One of the only references dedicated to DMA, this accessible and easy-to-read guide gathers the most pertinent information available on this important technique.



Physical Properties of Polymers

Physical Properties of Polymers Author James Mark
ISBN-10 0521530180
Release 2004-03-25
Pages 519
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Polymer science is a large and rapidly developing branch of modern materials chemistry. This book is a thoroughly revised and up-dated third edition of a well established textbook. Written by seven of the leading figures in the polymer science community it discusses the diverse physical states and associated properties of polymers. Each author contributes a chapter which reflects his own interests and expertise. Containing numerous problem sets and worked examples this third edition will be of primary interest to graduate students and researchers studying all aspects of polymeric materials.



Viscoelasticity

Viscoelasticity Author J. T. Bergen
ISBN-10 9781483261768
Release 2013-10-22
Pages 160
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Viscoelasticity: Phenomenological Aspects provides information pertinent to the phenomenological aspects of viscoelasticity. This book provides the basic approach to the behavioral description of viscoelasticity. Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the development of various theories of linear viscoelastic theories. This text then presents the results of investigation that evaluate the linear viscoelastic parameters of typical polymeric materials. Other chapters consider the development of nonlinear stress-strain-time relations for viscoelastic materials, which have been helpful in the analysis of the linear mechanical behavior of rubberlike polymers and the molecular theories. This book discusses as well the application of linear theories and the behavior of a number of polymer systems and their similarities and differences. The final chapter deals with experimental observations of real materials that exhibit nonlinear, time-dependent stress-strain behavior. This book is a valuable resource for chemists, mechanical engineers, and research workers.



Constitutive Equations for Polymer Melts and Solutions

Constitutive Equations for Polymer Melts and Solutions Author Ronald G. Larson
ISBN-10 9781483162867
Release 2013-10-22
Pages 380
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Constitutive Equations for Polymer Melts and Solutions presents a description of important constitutive equations for stress and birefringence in polymer melts, as well as in dilute and concentrated solutions of flexible and rigid polymers, and in liquid crystalline materials. The book serves as an introduction and guide to constitutive equations, and to molecular and phenomenological theories of polymer motion and flow. The chapters in the text discuss topics on the flow phenomena commonly associated with viscoelasticity; fundamental elementary models for understanding the rheology of melts, solutions of flexible polymers, and advanced constitutive equations; melts and concentrated solutions of flexible polymer; and the rheological properties of real liquid crystal polymers. Chemical engineers and physicists will find the text very useful.



Polymer Science and Technology

Polymer Science and Technology Author Joel R. Fried
ISBN-10 9780137039555
Release 2014
Pages 663
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The Definitive Guide to Polymer Principles, Properties, Synthesis, Applications, and Simulations Now fully revised, Polymer Science and Technology, Third Edition, systematically reviews the field's current state and emerging advances. Leading polymer specialist Joel R. Fried offers modern coverage of both processing principles and applications in multiple industries, including medicine, biotechnology, chemicals, and electronics. This edition's new and expanded coverage ranges from advanced synthesis to the latest drug delivery applications. New topics include controlled radical polymerization, click chemistry, green chemistry, block copolymers, nanofillers, electrospinning, and more. A brand-new chapter offers extensive guidance for predicting polymer properties, including additional coverage of group correlations, and new discussions of the use of topological indices and neural networks. This is also the first introductory polymer text to fully explain computational polymer science, including molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods. Simulation concepts are supported with many application examples, ranging from prediction of PVT values to permeability and free volume. Fried thoroughly covers synthetic polymer chemistry; polymer properties in solution and in melt, rubber, and solid states; and all important categories of plastics. This revised edition also adds many new calculations, end-of-chapter problems, and references. In-depth coverage includes Polymer synthesis: step- and chain-growth; bulk, solution, suspension, emulsion, solid-state, and plasma; ionic liquids, and macromers; and genetic engineering Amorphous and crystalline states, transitions, mechanical properties, and solid-state characterization Polymers and the environment: degradation, stability, and more Additives, blends, block copolymers, and composites–including interpenetrating networks, nanocomposites, buckyballs, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and POSS Biopolymers, natural polymers, fibers, thermoplastics, elastomers, and thermosets Engineering and specialty polymers, from polycarbonates to ionic polymers and high-performance fibers Polymer rheology, processing, and modeling Correlations and simulations: group contribution, topological indices, artificial neural networks, molecular dynamics, and Monte Carlo simulations



An Introduction to the Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers

An Introduction to the Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers Author I. M. Ward
ISBN-10 9780470020371
Release 2005-08-19
Pages 394
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Provides a comprehensive introduction to the mechanical behaviour of solid polymers. Extensively revised and updated throughout, the second edition now includes new material on mechanical relaxations and anisotropy, composites modelling, non-linear viscoelasticity, yield behaviour and fracture of tough polymers. The accessible approach of the book has been retained with each chapter designed to be self contained and the theory and applications of the subject carefully introduced where appropriate. The latest developments in the field are included alongside worked examples, mathematical appendices and an extensive reference. Fully revised and updated throughout to include all the latest developments in the field Worked examples at the end of the chapter An invaluable resource for students of materials science, chemistry, physics or engineering studying polymer science



Inorganic Polymers

Inorganic Polymers Author James E. Mark
ISBN-10 9780195131192
Release 2005-04-21
Pages 338
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I. Introduction 1.1. What Is a Polymer1.2. How Polymers Are Depicted1.3. Reasons for Interest in Organic Polymers1.4. Types of Inorganic Polymers1.5. Special Characteristics of PolymersII. Characterization of Inorganic Polymers 2.1. Molecular Weights2.2. Molecular Weight Distribution2.3. Other Structural Features2.4. Chain Statistics2.5. Solubility Considerations2.6. Crystallinity2.7. Transitions2.8. Spectroscopy2.9. Mechanical PropertiesIII. Polyphosphazenes 3.1. Introduction3.2. History3.3. Alternative Synthesis Routes to Linear Polymers3.4. Surface Reactions of Polyphosphazenes3.5. Hybrid S.



Polymers

Polymers Author J.M.G. Cowie
ISBN-10 9781420009873
Release 2007-07-27
Pages 520
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Extensively revised and updated to keep abreast of recent advances, Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Third Edition continues to provide a broad-based, high-information text at an introductory, reader-friendly level that illustrates the multidisciplinary nature of polymer science. Adding or amending roughly 50% of the material, this new edition strengthens its aim to contribute a comprehensive treatment by offering a wide and balanced selection of topics across all aspects of the chemistry and physics of polymer science, from synthesis and physical properties to applications. Although the basics of polymer science remain unchanged, significant discoveries in the area of control over molecular weight, macromolecular structure and architecture, and the consequent ability to prepare materials with specific properties receive extensive mention in the third edition. Expanded chapters include controlled radical polymerizations, metallocene chemistry, and the preparation of block and graft copolymers, as well as multiarmed and dendritic structures. Reflecting the growth of polymer applications in industry, the book presents detailed examples to illustrate polymer use in electronic, biological, and medical settings. The authors introduce new understandings of rheological behavior and replace old and outmoded methods of polymer characterization with new and up-to-date techniques. Also new to this edition are a series of problems at the end of each chapter that will test whether the reader has understood the various points and in some cases expand on that knowledge. An accompanying solutions manual is also available for qualifying course adoptions. Offering the highest quality, comprehensive coverage of polymer science in an affordable, accessible format, Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Third Edition continues to provide undergraduate and graduate students and professors with the most complete and current coverage of modern polymer science.



The Science and Technology of Rubber

The Science and Technology of Rubber Author James E. Mark
ISBN-10 9780123948328
Release 2013-05-10
Pages 816
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The 4e of The Science and Technology of Rubber provides a broad survey of elastomers with special emphasis on materials with a rubber-like elasticity. As in previous editions, the emphasis remains on a unified treatment of the material, exploring chemical aspects such as elastomer synthesis and curing, through recent theoretical developments and characterization of equilibrium and dynamic properties, to the final applications of rubber, including tire engineering and manufacturing. Updated material stresses the continuous relationship between ongoing research in synthesis, physics, structure and mechanics of rubber technology and industrial applications. Special attention is paid to recent advances in rubber-like elasticity theory and new processing techniques for elastomers. Exciting new developments in green tire manufacturing and tire recycling are covered. Provides a complete survey of elastomers for engineers and researchers in a unified treatment: from chemical aspects like elastomer synthesis and curing to the final applications of rubber, including tire engineering and manufacturing Contains important updates to several chapters, including elastomer synthesis, characterization, viscoelastic behavior, rheology, reinforcement, tire engineering, and recycling Includes a new chapter on the burgeoning field of bioelastomers



Thermoreversible Networks

Thermoreversible Networks Author Klaas te Nijenhuis
ISBN-10 3662147947
Release 2014-03-12
Pages 267
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This review shows that the measurement of viscoelastic properties is a powerful tool in the study of thermoreversible gels. Although many conclusions may be drawn about network development and its structure, it is also shown that the use of additional techniques (e.g. small angle S-ray and neutron scattering techniques and optical rotation) and the combination with thermodynamics and network models, widens the insight in the crosslinking process and the gel structure temendously. A general Introduction is followed by eight Chapters concerning synthetic polymers (PVC, PVAL, PMMA, PS, PAN, PE, ABA blockcopolymers and LCP's) and four Chapters concerning biopolymers (gelatin, agarose, carrageenans and gellan gum).



Introduction to Polymers Third Edition

Introduction to Polymers  Third Edition Author Robert J. Young
ISBN-10 9780849339295
Release 2011-06-27
Pages 688
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Thoroughly updated, Introduction to Polymers, Third Edition presents the science underpinning the synthesis, characterization and properties of polymers. The material has been completely reorganized and expanded to include important new topics and provide a coherent platform for teaching and learning the fundamental aspects of contemporary polymer science. New to the Third Edition Part I This first part covers newer developments in polymer synthesis, including ‘living’ radical polymerization, catalytic chain transfer and free-radical ring-opening polymerization, along with strategies for the synthesis of conducting polymers, dendrimers, hyperbranched polymers and block copolymers. Polymerization mechanisms have been made more explicit by showing electron movements. Part II In this part, the authors have added new topics on diffusion, solution behaviour of polyelectrolytes and field-flow fractionation methods. They also greatly expand coverage of spectroscopy, including UV visible, Raman, infrared, NMR and mass spectroscopy. In addition, the Flory–Huggins theory for polymer solutions and their phase separation is treated more rigorously. Part III A completely new, major topic in this section is multicomponent polymer systems. The book also incorporates new material on macromolecular dynamics and reptation, liquid crystalline polymers and thermal analysis. Many of the diagrams and micrographs have been updated to more clearly highlight features of polymer morphology. Part IV The last part of the book contains major new sections on polymer composites, such as nanocomposites, and electrical properties of polymers. Other new topics include effects of chain entanglements, swelling of elastomers, polymer fibres, impact behaviour and ductile fracture. Coverage of rubber-toughening of brittle plastics has also been revised and expanded. While this edition adds many new concepts, the philosophy of the book remains unchanged. Largely self-contained, the text fully derives most equations and cross-references topics between chapters where appropriate. Each chapter not only includes a list of further reading to help readers expand their knowledge of the subject but also provides problem sets to test understanding, particularly of numerical aspects.