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ZnO Nanocarbon Core Shell Type Hybrid Quantum Dots

ZnO Nanocarbon Core Shell Type Hybrid Quantum Dots Author Won Kook Choi
ISBN-10 9789811009808
Release 2016-08-20
Pages 75
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This book offers a comprehensive overview of ZnO-nano carbon core shell hybrid issues. There is significant interest in metal oxide/nanocarbon hybrid functional materials in the field of energy conversion and storage as electrode materials for supercapacitors, Li ion secondary battery, electrocatalysts for water splitting, and optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes and solar photovoltaic cells. Despite efforts to manipulate more uniform metal oxide-nanocarbon nanocomposite structures, they have shown poor performance because they are randomly scattered and non-uniformly attached to the nanocarbon surface. For higher and more effective performance of the hybrid structure, 3D conformal coating on metal oxides are highly desirable. In the first part of the book, the physical and chemical properties of ZnO and nanocarbons and the state-of-the-art in related research are briefly summarized. In the next part, the 3D conformal coating synthetic processes of ZnO templated nanocarbon hybrid materials such as ZnO-graphene,-C60, single-walled (SWCNT) are introduced with the aid of schematic illustrations. Analysis of their chemical bonding and structure are also presented. In the final section, several applications are presented: UV photovoltaic cells and photoelectrochemical anodes for water splitting using ZnO-C60 and ZnO-graphene, white-light-emitting diodes based on ZnO-graphene quantum dots(GQDs), inverted solar cells using ligand-modified ZnO-graphene QDs, and P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer with mixed with nano-ring SWCNT. The book describes how strong anchoring bonds between a ZnO core and carbon nanomaterial shell will ultimately prevail over the main drawbacks of ZnO with high charge recombination and poor electrochemical stability in liquid solutions. Due to the moderate energy states and excellent electric properties of the nanocarbons, ultrafast charge carrier transport from the ZnO core to the nanocarbon shell is guaranteed with the use of the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime measurement. Given the growing interest and significance of future research in optoelectronic and electrochemical devices applications, the contents are very timely. This book is targeted towards researchers looking for highly efficient metal oxide-nanocarbon hybrid functional materials in the fields of nano-optoelectronics, photoelectrochemistry, energy storage and conversion.



Nanozymes Next Wave of Artificial Enzymes

Nanozymes  Next Wave of Artificial Enzymes Author Xiaoyu Wang
ISBN-10 9783662530689
Release 2016-08-28
Pages 127
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This book describes the fundamental concepts, the latest developments and the outlook of the field of nanozymes (i.e., the catalytic nanomaterials with enzymatic characteristics). As one of today’s most exciting fields, nanozyme research lies at the interface of chemistry, biology, materials science and nanotechnology. Each of the book’s six chapters explores advances in nanozymes. Following an introduction to the rise of nanozymes research in the course of research on natural enzymes and artificial enzymes in Chapter 1, Chapters 2 through 5 discuss different nanomaterials used to mimic various natural enzymes, from carbon-based and metal-based nanomaterials to metal oxide-based nanomaterials and other nanomaterials. In each of these chapters, the nanomaterials’ enzyme mimetic activities, catalytic mechanisms and key applications are covered. In closing, Chapter 6 addresses the current challenges and outlines further directions for nanozymes. Presenting extensive information on nanozymes and supplemented with a wealth of color illustrations and tables, the book offers an ideal guide for readers from disparate areas, including analytical chemistry, materials science, nanoscience and nanotechnology, biomedical and clinical engineering, environmental science and engineering, green chemistry, and novel catalysis.



Biocompatible Graphene for Bioanalytical Applications

Biocompatible Graphene for Bioanalytical Applications Author Yuwei Hu
ISBN-10 9783662456958
Release 2014-12-04
Pages 116
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This book highlights the latest advances in the use of graphene and bio-compatible-material-decorated graphene to detect various targets (e.g. DNA, RNA, amino acids, peptides, proteins, enzymes, antigens, glucose, DA, AA, UA, ATP, NADH, gas, ions, etc.). It focuses on the specific interaction of these substances with graphene (or modified graphene) and the efficient transduction of the target recognition event into detectable signals via various techniques. Particular emphasis is given to well-designed strategies for constructing graphene-based platforms and target determination. It also covers other bio-analytical applications including cellular imaging, drug delivery and bacteria inhibition, before turning to a discussion of future challenges and prospects of graphene in bio-analytical applications. This book is intended for researchers working in the fields of analytical chemistry, nanomaterials and biomedical engineering. Li Niu is a Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.



Understanding LED Illumination

Understanding LED Illumination Author M. Nisa Khan
ISBN-10 9781466507739
Release 2013-08-20
Pages 272
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Understanding LED Illumination elucidates the science of lighting for light emitting diodes. It presents concepts, theory, simulations, and new design techniques that shine the spotlight on illumination, energy efficiency, and reducing electrical power consumption. The text provides an introduction to the fundamentals of LED lamp design, and highlights the principles of large-space and 3D object illumination for developing competitive LED lamps. The first part of the book discusses lamp output metrics and characterization methods, while the second part of the book explores certain retail and prototype lamp comparisons with theory, simulations and experiments It details the light propagation and distribution characteristics of LED light sources for general illumination applications, and presents design and simulation requirements for LED lamps suited for real-world applications. It also addresses light generation, efficiency, theoretical limits, efficiency limiting factors, and LED lamp design elements. Emphasizes the lighting aspects for LED lamps: quality and improvement Describes the basics of junction diode and the intricacies of compound semiconductor optoelectronic properties including the thermal, electrical, optical, and mechanical aspects Explains the challenges of LED lighting in scientific and mathematical terms Includes case studies from Osram Optosemiconductors, Sylvania, and Phillips, GE, and others The book characterizes several LED replacement lamps for household and commercial lighting and discusses a novel design for improving tubular LED replacements. It takes the mysteries out of solid-state lighting for lighting designers, and helps LED scientists and engineers effectively design their products to provide high-quality illumination.



The Evaporation Mechanism in the Wick of Copper Heat Pipes

The Evaporation Mechanism in the Wick of Copper Heat Pipes Author Shwin-Chung Wong
ISBN-10 9783319044958
Release 2014-01-24
Pages 38
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This book discusses the evaporation mechanism in the wick of copper heat pipes. The investigations are based on recent visualization experiments for operating horizontal flat-plate heat pipes.



Functionalizing Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes

Functionalizing Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes Author Filipe Vargas Ferreira
ISBN-10 9783319351100
Release 2016-08-22
Pages 63
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This book compiles all current information on the different types of functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene, both covalent and non-covalent. The book starts with a general overview of the synthesis, characterization and application of functionalized CNTs and graphene. Special attention is dedicated to the characterization of functionalized materials, a topic rarely addressed on the literature. The authors provide a comparison between the functionalization of these two types of carbon materials.



Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Rotating Porous Media

Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Rotating Porous Media Author Peter Vadasz
ISBN-10 9783319200569
Release 2015-07-28
Pages 78
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This Book concentrates the available knowledge on rotating fluid flow and heat transfer in porous media in one single reference. Dr. Vadasz develops the fundamental theory of rotating flow and heat transfer in porous media and introduces systematic classification and identification of the relevant problems. An initial distinction between rotating flows in isothermal heterogeneous porous systems and natural convection in homogeneous non-‐isothermal porous systems provides the two major classes of problems to be considered. A few examples of solutions to selected problems are presented, highlighting the significant impact of rotation on the flow in porous media.



Natural Convection from Circular Cylinders

Natural Convection from Circular Cylinders Author Sandra Boetcher
ISBN-10 9783319081328
Release 2014-08-05
Pages 48
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This book presents a concise, yet thorough, reference for all heat transfer coefficient correlations and data for all types of cylinders: vertical, horizontal, and inclined. This book covers all natural convection heat transfer laws for vertical and inclined cylinders and is an excellent resource for engineers working in the area of heat transfer engineering.



An Introduction to Markov State Models and Their Application to Long Timescale Molecular Simulation

An Introduction to Markov State Models and Their Application to Long Timescale Molecular Simulation Author Gregory R. Bowman
ISBN-10 9789400776067
Release 2013-12-02
Pages 139
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The aim of this book volume is to explain the importance of Markov state models to molecular simulation, how they work, and how they can be applied to a range of problems. The Markov state model (MSM) approach aims to address two key challenges of molecular simulation: 1) How to reach long timescales using short simulations of detailed molecular models. 2) How to systematically gain insight from the resulting sea of data. MSMs do this by providing a compact representation of the vast conformational space available to biomolecules by decomposing it into states sets of rapidly interconverting conformations and the rates of transitioning between states. This kinetic definition allows one to easily vary the temporal and spatial resolution of an MSM from high-resolution models capable of quantitative agreement with (or prediction of) experiment to low-resolution models that facilitate understanding. Additionally, MSMs facilitate the calculation of quantities that are difficult to obtain from more direct MD analyses, such as the ensemble of transition pathways. This book introduces the mathematical foundations of Markov models, how they can be used to analyze simulations and drive efficient simulations, and some of the insights these models have yielded in a variety of applications of molecular simulation.



FinFET Modeling for IC Simulation and Design

FinFET Modeling for IC Simulation and Design Author Yogesh Singh Chauhan
ISBN-10 9780124200852
Release 2015-03-17
Pages 304
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This book is the first to explain FinFET modeling for IC simulation and the industry standard – BSIM-CMG - describing the rush in demand for advancing the technology from planar to 3D architecture, as now enabled by the approved industry standard. The book gives a strong foundation on the physics and operation of FinFET, details aspects of the BSIM-CMG model such as surface potential, charge and current calculations, and includes a dedicated chapter on parameter extraction procedures, providing a step-by-step approach for the efficient extraction of model parameters. With this book you will learn: Why you should use FinFET The physics and operation of FinFET Details of the FinFET standard model (BSIM-CMG) Parameter extraction in BSIM-CMG FinFET circuit design and simulation Authored by the lead inventor and developer of FinFET, and developers of the BSIM-CM standard model, providing an experts’ insight into the specifications of the standard The first book on the industry-standard FinFET model - BSIM-CMG



Advanced Plasma Technology

Advanced Plasma Technology Author Riccardo d'Agostino
ISBN-10 9783527622191
Release 2008-09-08
Pages 479
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A panel of internationally renowned scientists discuss the latest results in plasma technology. This volume has been compiled with both a didactic approach and an overview of the newest achievements for industrial applications. It is divided into two main sections. One is focused on fundamental technology, including plasma production and control, high-pressure discharges, modeling and simulation, diagnostics, dust control, and etching. The section on application technology covers polymer treatments, silicon solar cell, coating and spray, biomaterials, sterilization and waste treatment, plasma propulsion, plasma display panels, and anti-corrosion coatings. The result is an indispensable work for physicists, chemists and engineers involved in the field of plasma technology.



Principles of Molecular Photochemistry

Principles of Molecular Photochemistry Author Nicholas J. Turro
ISBN-10 1891389572
Release 2009-01
Pages 495
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Developed from Nick Turro's best-selling text for three decades, Modern Molecular Photochemistry, this book develops photochemical and photophysical concepts from a small set of familiar principles and provides clear descriptions in pictorial terms. This text will be of interest to not only practicing photochemists and their students, but also to biological scientists, polymer scientists, material scientists and nanoscientists.



Fluid Dynamics of Cavitation and Cavitating Turbopumps

Fluid Dynamics of Cavitation and Cavitating Turbopumps Author Luca d'Agostino
ISBN-10 3211766693
Release 2008-04-20
Pages 351
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The book focuses on the fluid dynamics of cavitation with special reference to high power density turbopumps, where it represents the major source of performance and life degradation. While covering the more fundamental aspects of cavitation and the main kinds of cavitating flows, there is focus on the hydrodynamics and instabilities of cavitating turbopumps. The book also illustrates the alternative approaches for modeling and engineering simulation of cavitating flows.



Solving PDEs in Python

Solving PDEs in Python Author Hans Petter Langtangen
ISBN-10 9783319524627
Release 2017-03-21
Pages 146
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This book offers a concise and gentle introduction to finite element programming in Python based on the popular FEniCS software library. Using a series of examples, including the Poisson equation, the equations of linear elasticity, the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations, and systems of nonlinear advection–diffusion–reaction equations, it guides readers through the essential steps to quickly solving a PDE in FEniCS, such as how to define a finite variational problem, how to set boundary conditions, how to solve linear and nonlinear systems, and how to visualize solutions and structure finite element Python programs. This book is open access under a CC BY license.



Film Genre for the Screenwriter

Film Genre for the Screenwriter Author Jule Selbo
ISBN-10 9781317695677
Release 2014-07-25
Pages 339
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Film Genre for the Screenwriter is a practical study of how classic film genre components can be used in the construction of a screenplay. Based on Jule Selbo’s popular course, this accessible guide includes an examination of the historical origins of specific film genres, how and why these genres are received and appreciated by film-going audiences, and how the student and professional screenwriter alike can use the knowledge of film genre components in the ideation and execution of a screenplay. Explaining the defining elements, characteristics and tropes of genres from romantic comedy to slasher horror, and using examples from classic films like Casablanca alongside recent blockbuster franchises like Harry Potter, Selbo offers a compelling and readable analysis of film genre in its written form. The book also offers case studies, talking points and exercises to make its content approachable and applicable to readers and writers across the creative field.



Encyclopedia of Polymeric Nanomaterials

Encyclopedia of Polymeric Nanomaterials Author Shiro Kobayashi
ISBN-10 3642296475
Release 2015-06-12
Pages 2672
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Over the last few years, nanoscience and nanotechnology have been the focus of significant research attention, both from academia and industry. This sustained focus has in-turn driven the interdisciplinary field of material science research to the forefront of scientific inquiry through the creation and study of nanomaterials. Nanomaterials play an important role in the development of new materials as they can be used to influence and control physical properties and specific characteristics of other materials. Nanostructured materials that have been created include nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanoporous materials, polymer multi-layers to name a few. These are increasingly used across applications as diverse as automotive, environment, energy, catalysis, biomedical, pharmaceutical, and polymer industries. The Encyclopedia of Polymeric Nanomaterials (EPN) intends to be a comprehensive reference work on this dynamic field studying nanomaterials within the context of the relationship between molecular structure and the properties of polymeric materials. Alphabetically organized as an encyclopedic Major Reference Work, EPN will cover the subject along multiple classification axes represented by name, source, properties, function, and structures or even processes, applications and usage. The underlying themes of the encyclopedia has been carefully identified to be based not just on material-based and function-based representation but also on structure- and process-based representation. The encyclopedia will have an exclusive focus on polymeric nanomaterials (for e.g., nanoceramics, nanocomposites, quantum dots, thin films) and will be a first of its kind work to have such an organization providing an overview to the concepts, practices and applications in the field. The encyclopedia intends to cover research and development work ranging from the fundamental mechanisms used for the fabrication of polymeric nanomaterials to their advanced application across multiple industries.



1D Oxide Nanostructures Obtained by Sol Gel and Hydrothermal Methods

1D Oxide Nanostructures Obtained by Sol Gel and Hydrothermal Methods Author Crina Anastasescu
ISBN-10 9783319329888
Release 2016-10-08
Pages 82
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This book presents wet chemical sol-gel and hydrothermal methods for 1D oxide nanostructure preparation. These methods represent an attractive route to multifunctional nanomaterials synthesis, as they are versatile, inexpensive and, thus, appropriate for obtaining a wide range of oxide materials with tailored morphology and properties. Three specific oxides (SiO2, TiO2, ZnO) are discussed in detail in order to illustrate the principle of the sol-gel and hydrothermal preparation of 1D oxide nanostructures. Other oxides synthesized via this method are also briefly presented. Throughout the book, the correlation between the tubular structure and the physico-chemical properties of these materials is highlighted. 1D oxide nanostructures exhibit interesting optical and electrical properties, due to their confined morphology. In addition, a well-defined geometry can be associated with chemically active species. For example, the pure SiO2 nanotubes presented a slight photocatalytic activity, while the Pt-doped SiO2 tubular materials act as microreactors in catalytic reactions. In the case of titania and titanate nanotubes, large specific surface area and pore volume, ion-exchange ability, enhanced light absorption, and fast electron-transport capability have attracted significant research interest. The chemical and physical modifications (microwave assisted hydrothermal methods) discussed here improve the formation kinetics of the nanotubes. The ZnO nanorods/tubes were prepared as random particles or as large areas of small, oriented 1D ZnO nanostructures on a variety of substrates. In the latter case a sol-gel layer is deposited on the substrate prior to the hydrothermal preparation. Using appropriate dopants, coatings of ZnO nanorods with controlled electrical behavior can be obtained.